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WWI. The Alliance System & The Causes of war. Who’s Who in the Alliances. The Central Powers/The Triple Alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Versus…. The Triple Entente France Russia Britain. The Alliance System. The Central Powers/ The Triple Alliance Germany Austria- Hungary

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  1. WWI The Alliance System & The Causes of war

  2. Who’s Who in the Alliances • The Central Powers/The Triple Alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Versus… • The Triple Entente • France • Russia • Britain

  3. The Alliance System • The Central Powers/ The Triple Alliance • Germany • Austria- Hungary • Italy

  4. Germany Kaiser Wilhelm II wanted Germany to be a world power, rivalry with England Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg sought, ineffectively, reconciliation with Britain Concerned about “encirclement” by Fr & Russia Navy is being built up – second to Britain Concerned about possible military build-up in Russia

  5. Austria-Hungary Emperor Franz Joseph, 83 yrs., wary of war despite advisors’ willingness Multi-ethnic, Czechs, Serbs, Slavs, Germans Serbs wanted to rejoin Serbia, Croats (Slavs) & Czechs wanted independence, - Challenge for A-H Concerned about growing strength of Serbia

  6. Italy Like Germany, recently formed Also looking for overseas empire, but Relatively week militarily & economically

  7. Formed in 1907 Britain France Russia Franco-Russian Alliance 1894 Later add Anglo-Russian The Triple Entente

  8. Britain • King George V • Herbert Henry Asquith – Prime Minister until 1916 & Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey • France & Russia used to be rivals, now friends due to: • Agreements btwn UK & Fr regarding N. Africa 1904 • Russian defeat (1904) showed Russian weakness – UK felt strong • Germany is focus of concern; Kaiser’s open desire for German empire threatens Britain

  9. France Since Franco-Prussian war (1871), France has worried about Germany New industrialism makes concerns grow France developed strong friendship with Russia France’s main goal is protection from Germany & return of Alsace-Lorraine

  10. Russia Czar Nicholas II Huge, agricultural, less developed France is major financial backer of budding Russian industry Long animosity with respect to Aus-Hun Slav connection strong with Serbs Japanese conflict & revolution against Czar provoke build-up of army

  11. The Ottoman Empire In decline since constitutions became part of the political structure of the empire Recede from influence in Balkans Balkan nationalism increases Anti-Russian Germans Germans seek influence w/ Ottomans help control RR to Bagdhad Not part of the Alliance system until war breaks out

  12. Ottoman Empire 1683

  13. Would you wage war against your relatives? Many of Europe’s monarchies are related in some way Ex: Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany vacationed at his grandmother’s (Queen Victoria) as a child…..was cousin to….. See sheet for more details

  14. Can you think of 7 major causes of WWI? We might agree that all were causes, but to what degree were each responsible? (I can think of 8……)

  15. Cause #1: International Crises Increase Tensions • Morocco 1905 & 1911 • Kaiser seeks influence in N. Africa by opposing French colonialism there • 1905 – backs Moroccan independence (unsuccessfully) • 1911 – France takes over Morocco, Ger sends in gunboat – fearing possibility of Ger. Naval base in Mediterranean, Britain begins patrol of Mediterranean to protect French interests • Triple Entente (1907) is response to such crises

  16. Cause #2:Economic Imperialism Increases Tensions German desire for piece of African cake Central African concession after Moroccan crises aren’t enough

  17. Cause #3:Ethnic nationalism Tensions within and toward Austria-Hungary grow Bosnia-Herzegovina annexed in 1908 Serbian Nationalism grows Weakening Ottoman Empire reduces its influence in Balkans, allows nationalism to grow Inevitability of Balkan conflict – Powder Keg

  18. Cause #4The Alliance System Balance of Power politics requires weak states to balance power of strong, or align with weaker side in a conflict If no balance, larger power will swallow smaller power Balanced power is supposed to prevent war British join France & Russia to balance Germany, in particular

  19. Cause #5The Arms Race Arms Race: the build-up of both higher quantities of arms (quantitative arms race) and technologically advanced arms (qualitative) in response to another nation’s build-up Naval: Dreadnaught – war ship with rotating turrets - fire in any direction, fast, turbine engines 1914: England 29, Germany 14 Land: Buildup of military personnel –esp. Germany Effects: • Contributes to the idea of impending war • Justified to prevent war • Glorification of war and militarism

  20. Cause #6:Militarism & Autocracy Military elites had increasing power in government Allows for decisions to follow military lines instead of political, economic, social, etc. Desire for military dominance increases potential for war

  21. Cause #7: the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand THE SPARK Read the passage from Walsh…… Or watch From PBS’ The Great War Episode #1 Explosion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1HThOGuuwM&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egMOx2UurX8&feature=related

  22. Cause #8: Inflexible War Plans Most countries involved had designed war plans due to growing international tensions As warfare technology changed, need for flexibility increased Inflexible war plans kept momentum going i.e. Schleiffen Plan

  23. Germany: Schleiffen Plan The claw on the west – N into Belgium, SW into Fr to take France – Encircle Paris Scare Russians by taking France early Get to Russia 6 wks later Assumed: Russian army slow, cumbersome

  24. France: Plan 17 Commander Joseph Joffre Focus on recapture of Alsace-Lorraine 4 groups, 2 north, 2 south move into Germany Northern forces could go through Belgium if need be (thought of after the fact)

  25. Austria: Plans B & R Austria-Hungary assumed the war would only be in Serbia Plan B: Balkans – 3 of 6 armies to the Serbian border, 3 kept in reserve in case of Russian attack Plan R: Russia – revised plan B to aim 4 armies at Russia, 2 at Serbia

  26. Russia: Plan G and 19 2 very different plans Plan G: small mobilization at German border, allows for some loss while larger army mobilizes, then heavy mobilization Plan 19: Assumed (correctly) Ger. Would attack France 1st – so 2 armies into Germany (East Prussia) Used Plan 19 - Russia is defeated in first battles

  27. Britain: No plan No conscripted army – only a professional army British Expeditionary Forces mobilize in 21 days to help Belgium & France

  28. Which cause is the most compelling for you? Write your thoughts in your notes – you are allowed to change later…..

  29. Belgium: No Plans Neutral Country All troops (117,000) placed immediately in defense of Antwerp.

  30. Serbia: Once war was declared, army would be doubled & placed to strike against A-H

  31. US: Neutral Huge leap in exports to Triple Entente Exports to Germany continue but declin Germans seen as the agressor among US public

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