WWI The Short Version:Who, What, When, Where, Why
Factors that caused WWI • WWI was caused by the combination of 4 major factors. 1.Imperialism, 2.Militarism, 3.Nationalism, 4.Alliances • 1. Imperialism- Belief in building an empire “when stronger nations conquer weaker nations” • During the 1800’s Great Britain, Germany, France competed for control Africa, Asia causing tension over border conflicts • Austria-Hungary and Russia competed for control of Eastern Europe
Factors Continued • 2.Militarism- Belief in Building a large powerful Army and Navy. • The Nations of Germany, Russia, France and Great Britain competed to see how who could the best military • Along with militarism came the invention of new military technology such as Machine Gun, Submarines, Powerful Artillery cannons, Zeppelin's, and Chemical Warfare • 3. Nationalism- Belief in having pride and total devotion to ones nation. Belief that your nation is the best • Similar to the word Patriotism • Nationalism caused rivalries between Nations like France/Germany and Austria/Serbia to explode into war
WWI Factors continued • 4. Alliances- Teaming up with other nations to become more powerful or for protection. • Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy • Triple Entente- Great Britain, France, Russia • Most people thought that Alliances would Keep the peace in Europe because each nation would be afraid of attacking • In reality these alliance will take a small conflict and turn it into a worldwide conflict.
Important people of WWI • Kaiser Wilhelm II- Emperor of Germany • Franz Joseph- Emperor of Austria-Hungary • Archduke Franz Ferdinand- Prince of A-H • The assassination of Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian terrorist eventually sparked the outbreak of WWI • Czar Nicholas II- Emperor of Russia, Cousin of Kaiser Wilhelm.
The Dominos Start Falling • The Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungry is Assassinated by a Serbian Terrorist • Austria-Hungry retaliates and declares war on Serbia… • Russia sends troops to help, their “little Bro” Serbia. • Germany is forced by their alliance with A-H to declare war against Russia. • Kaiser Wilhelm II Urges his cousin Czar Nick II to try and work out the problem with Austria • Meanwhile the Kaiser has also given a “Blank Check” (WHAT EVER YOU DO WE WILL SUPPORT YOU)to its Triple alliance buddy Austria • Germany knew France was going to come to the aid of Russia because of its participation in “triple entente”
Europe Takes Sides Triple Alliance= Germany+Austria-Hungry+Italy • The European Countries Taker their sides. • Germany and Austria-Hungry become Known as the Central Powers, along with Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire. • Italy Drops out of the Triple Alliance because they considered it a defensive alliance and they considered Germany and A-H the aggressors
Triple Entente= Great Britain+Russia+ France Europe Takes Sides • All the members of the triple entente became known as the Allied Powers or the Allies • Other Countries that Joined the Allied Powers including Japan and Belgium… later the USA • Italy Flip-flops and Joins the Allies later in the war after they realize that they could steal some land from Austria-Hungary • Soldiers from British Colonies such as India and South Africa fought in Europe along side their European Overlords, making it truly a world war
WWI Facts • At the Beginning of the War, young soldiers were excited to go to battle. Many of them volunteering for the war. • The War started in July of 1914 and some thought that it would be over by Xmas, But will last more than 4 years til Nov. 1918 • WWI was originally called “The Great War” and “The War to end all Wars”
New Styles of War • Military tactics in the early part of World War I failed to keep pace with advances in military technology. Causing the War to slow down, into a new style of war called trench warfare • These new technologies allowed the construction of formidable defenses, Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances; coupled with machine gun, made crossing open “No Mans Land” a nightmarish prospect
France= 8.4 Million Troops Great Brit= 8.9 Million Trps Russia= 12 million Troops Italy= 5 Million troops America= 4.7 Million troops Germany= 11 million Trps Austria-H= 7.8 MillionOttoman Empire= 3 million