WWI • Congress approves declaration of war, but what about getting the American people behind it? • Wilson ran for reelection in 1916 with the slogan “He Kept Us Out of War.” Now he has to get the public who supported neutrality and noninvolvement behind the war effort. • What should he do?
What does he do? Hires George Creel to start the Committee on Public Information
What does the Committee on Public Information do? • Oversees all war-related news • Produces films • Hires lecturers called “Four Minute Men” who deliver 7.5 millions talks • Creates propaganda posters to generate support and sell bonds
Video clip • America's Homefront during WWI
Over There As sung by early-20th century recording artist Billy Murray: • Verse 1 • Johnny, get your gun, get your gun, get your gun. • Take it on the run, on the run, on the run. • Hear them calling you and me, • Every Son of Liberty. • Hurry right away, no delay, go today. • Make your Daddy glad to have had such a lad. • Tell your sweetheart not to pine, • To be proud her boy's in line. • Verse 2 • Johnny, get gun, • Johnny, show the "Hun" you're a son-of-a-gun. • Hoist the flag and let her fly • Yankee Doodle do or die. • Pack your little kit, show your grit, do your bit. • Yankee to the ranks from the towns and the tanks. • Make your Mother proud of you • And the old red-white-and-blue • Chorus • Over there, over there, • Send the word, send the word over there • That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming • The drums rum-tumming everywhere. • So prepare, say a prayer, • Send the word, send the word to beware - • We'll be over, we're coming over, • And we won't come back till it's over, over there.
Why? • Unite a multicultural society (with German-Americans as the largest ethnic group) behind the war effort • Attract men to the armed services, get people to support them • Sell war bonds and conserve • Influence citizens to stop others from making anti-war and anti-draft comments, and striking
Schenck v. US 1919
Background • US getting ready for war • Espionage Act – not allowed to cause insubordination with draft, military personel • Schenck is a socialist, opposed war, wrote and distributed anti war pamphlets
Question before the Supreme Court..? • Does the Espionage Act violate the 1st Amendment in respect to freedom of speech?
Arguments • Schenck – argued that his freedom of speech was being violated • Govt- argued that the pamphlets were designed to get men to resist the draft, this threatened the nation
Decision • Unanimously affirmed/sided with the government
Impact • When there is a “clear and present danger” Congress can pass laws to protect citizens and national security.
What do you think? • Is government sponsored propaganda during wartime a good thing? • Should your 1st Amendment rights be protected during wartime?
End of WWI(now you can take some notes) • Schenck V. U.S. 1919 • 1st Amendment right to free speech could be restricted during wartime when words could cause “clear and present danger” like shouting fire in a crowded theater
Red Scare 1918-1919 • The Bolsheviks Revolution in Russia and its attack on capitalism and American beliefs led to an intense fear of communism • Communists, socialists, anarchists, labor leaders and immigrants were targets • Some imprisoned or exiled
The Fourteen Points • Wilson’s peace proposal included • No secret alliances, but open diplomacy • Freedom of the seas • Removal of trade barriers • Arms reduction • Self-determination – right of a people or nation to choose their own government
Treaty of Versailles • Germany had to: • War guilt – accept responsibility of causing war • Reparations • Demilitarization • Loss of territory in Europe and colonies • League of Nations – a new world peace organization
Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations rejected by Senate • Isolationists in Congress fear U.S. involvement in future wars • Wilson will not compromise on changes • Nation sticks with its traditional foreign policy of ISOLATION and acting alone • Rejection of Treaty by Senate is an example of… • Legislative check on Executive power