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WWI PowerPoint Presentation

WWI

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WWI

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  1. WWI The Great War Ch.19

  2. How did it all start??? 1914: Two great alliances Triple Entente- Britain, France, Russia Triple Alliance- Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Italy Sarajevo: June 28, 1914: Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir apparent to the throne) assassinated by Serbian terrorist. Vienna, July 23: Austrian gov. issues an ultimatum threatening war against Serbia and invades 4 days later. Berlin, August 1: As Austria’s ally, Germany declares war against Russia, an ally of Serbia. Berlin, August 3: Germany declares war against France, an ally of Russia, and begins an invasion of Belgium. London, August 4: Great Britain an ally of France, declares war against Germany.

  3. What were the REAL sides to the war? Central Powers Allies Britain, France, Italy, Russia, USA Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire.

  4. US Neutrality Reasons: Founding Fathers Not the United State’s issue/business. Issues with Neutrality: Many Americans sympathize with both sides. Reports of German atrocities Imposed trade/blockades.

  5. United States Neutrality: Kind of Complete neutrality would have sunk American trade/business. The US could survive without Central Powers. The US decides trade with France and Britain are a necessity. US: J.P Morgan and other bankers give $3 billion in loans to Britain and France. *Huge economic boom and major supplier of the Allies.

  6. Central Powers Push their luck Germans start using submarine warfare. Sink Lusitania: (1915) Kill 128 Americans. Attack the Sussex: Injured several Americans.

  7. Preparedness versus Pacifism Wilson very anti-war and anti-preparedness.(needless and provocative) Mind changes because of Germany’s actions 1916 Election- Democrats cheer that Wilson didn’t get the US into war. Wilson barely wins reelection.

  8. War for Democracy Wilson wanted a rational for war. US wanted to create a new world order (Progressive ideals) Promoted a league of nations and a “peace without victory.” Shortly after Wilson was sworn in, he asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany. April 2, 1917

  9. Causes for War Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- Early 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. Zimmerman Telegram- March 1, US newspapers printed shocking news of a secret telegram sent from Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico that proposed Mexico ally with Germany: Pledged Mexico would get their lost territories back. Russian Revolution- “Moral Diplomacy” but Russia was governed by an autocratic czar. Russian revolutionaries overthrew the czar’s government and proclaimed a republic. Renewed submarine attacks- March, German submarines sank 5 unarmed U.S merchant ships.

  10. Entering the War 1917- Virtual stalemate Americans have a huge influence in the sea. 1)Americans help attack U-boats 2) Escort merchant vessels. 3) Protect US soldiers going to Europe. Russia withdrew from the war, Britain and France were running low on reserves. *Americans had to send ground troops*

  11. American Expeditionary Force US had a tiny standing army. Few experienced in combat, and lacked training. Create a national draft (Selective Service Act) 3 million men came into the army and 2 million volunteered = (AEF)

  12. Low Morale Trench warfare caused terrible moral. -Rats, lice, mud, spoiled food, boredom, fear. 1/10 American soldiers acquired a venereal disease. Women-Menial jobs, not allowed to fight in combat. African Americans-served in segregated units. Given menial tasks. Hoped it may change racial perceptions. IQ tests- Reveal extreme disparity in education.

  13. Military Struggle Spring 1918, Americans send ground troops. General John J. Pershing led the American forces. Description of fighting: Trench warfare Heavy shelling “No man’s land” Low morale Thoughts of an endless war

  14. US turn the Tides Chateau Thierry June 1918- American troops helped the French hold off a German offensive. Americans help hold off another attack 6 weeks later at Rheims. (Put an end to German offensive) Meuse-Argonne Offensive- Americans help attack Germans in the Argonne Forest Germans are forced back to their border and hurt their supply lines. Germany had to decide to have warfare in their country or surrender. November 11, 1918, the Germans surrendered.

  15. New Technology Improved machine guns and artillery. Tanks Flamethrowers. Chemical Warfare: (Poisonous mustard gas) Airplanes New battleships Submarines

  16. Review Questions What issues led America into the war? What immediate influence did the US have in the war? How did America change the tides of the war? How did technology influence the war?

  17. War at HomeWWI in America

  18. War and American Society $32 Billion spent on the war for the US How did they finance it? “Liberty Bonds” Taxes (Graduated Income Tax, Inheritance Tax. How did they organize the economy? Council of National Defense Civil Advisory Commission *Split duties up within different departments* War Industries Board (1917)- Oversee military supplies.

  19. Labor and the War National War Labor Board (1918) 8 Hour Work Day Minimal living standards Equal pay for women Right of unions to organize and bargain together. (But in achieving these successes, gave up the right to strike!!!) Ludlow Massacre- Ludlow, Colorado Miners held strikes State militia attacked Killed 39 people and ended the strike.

  20. Economic and Social Results of War Huge boom in the economy. More work for Minorities Great Migration- African Americans from the South flood into the cities. Causes issues with residing blacks and whites Race Riots- White and black neighborhoods often became violent (East St. Louis)

  21. Peace Movement and Suppressing Dissent Fight for Peace German Americans, Irish Americans, Religious pacifists, intellectuals, Women’s Peace Party, Socialists = worked for peace and end to war. Selling the War Support for the war was pretty high. Examples: Volunteer enlistments, Women joining the Red Cross, War bonds, Churches, etc… Propaganda- Committee of Public Information - Supplied 75 million pro-war propaganda.

  22. Suppressing the Dissent Crude Propaganda Espionage Act- Punishment for spying, sabotage, obstruction of the war effort. Sabotage Act & Sedition Act- Make any public dissent to the war illegal. (Socialist Party and Industrial Workers of the World.) 100% Americanism- Opposition to immigrants and anything “Un-American” *Defines America for a VERY LONG TIME!!!***

  23. New World Order Why was America fighting? Wilson argued these points…. The Fourteen Points: Recognition of freedom of the seas An end to the practice of making secret treaties Reduction of national armaments Self-determination for various nationalities within the Austro-Hungarian empire Free trade League of Nations Issues: No solution for self-determination Failed to acknowledge international relation issues Idealistic

  24. Paris Peace Conference Great Britain: Lloyd George France: Clemenceau US: Wilson Italy: Vittorio Orlando Victories for Wilson: Freedom of the seas Free trade Open covenants Defeats: Impartial mediation National self-determination Reparations ($56 billion) (Germany only paid $9 billion)

  25. Wilson’s Pride and Health Wilson didn’t budge Went on a cross-country trip to promote the 14 Points Health deteriorates and suffers a major stroke. Congress called for amendments, Wilson refused, did not pass.

  26. Society in Turmoil Postwar recession -Gov. hadn’t prepared for the end of the war. -Inflation -Hurt gains unions had achieved Fear of change

  27. Worker Strikes Boston Police Strike: -Police off the job -Boston became chaos -National Guard sent to calm things Steel Workers Strike: -Greatest strike in US history -Very Violent -January the strike fell apart -Even the unions stopped backing the strike

  28. Demands of African Americans New attitude: Demand respect Tension grows between whites and blacks. 1919, Chicago Race Riots: Black teen swimming in Lake Michigan drifted to a white beach. Whites stoned him to death. Massive riot broke out in Chicago. Marcus Garvey’s Black Nationalism: Instilled pride in blacks and their culture. UNIA- United Negro Improvement Association- Start black businesses.

  29. Red Scare -Red Scare • Sacco and Vanzetti