Egypt Chapter 2 Section 2
Warm up • What do you know about the Ancient Egyptians? • Describe where Egypt is located? • What is Egypt’s major river? • Where do you want to be in 5 years?
The Geography of Egypt • The Nile dominates the Egyptian landscape. • It flows northward across Africa for over 4,100 miles. • It is the longest river in the world. • The Nile was divided by cataracts. – rapids that made it impossible for river boats to pass.
Egyptian settlements arose along the Nile on a narrow strip of fertile land.
The Gift of the Nile • Yearly flooding of the Nile brought fertilized the soil so that Egypt could grow crops and produce a surplus. • The flooding of the Nile was predictable and reliable. • The Egyptians worshiped the Nile as a god who gave life and seldom turned against them. • Herodotus – “Egypt was the gift of the Nile.”
Environmental Challenges • Although the Nile flooded predictably, the amount of flooding varied. • Too little flooding – thousands would starve • Too much flooding – waters would destroy houses, granaries, and seeds. • Huge deserts on either side of Egypt acted as natural barriers. Provided protection and isolation.
Upper and Lower Egypt • The southern part of the Nile is known as Upper Egypt. • It has a higher elevation. • Lower Egypt is to the north and includes the Nile delta region. – a broad, marshy, triangular area of land at the mouth of the river. • The Nile provided transportation between Upper and Lower Egypt. • This helped unify Egypt’s villages and promote trade.
Egypt Unites • Egyptians lived in farming villages as long ago as 5000 B.C.E. • Each village had its own rituals, gods, and rulers. • By 3200 B.C.E., Egypt was organized into two separate kingdoms. Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. • Eventually, the two kingdoms were united by Narmer around 3000 B.C.E. • Narmer is seen on a palette wearing a combination of the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.
Pharaohs Rule as gods • To other early civilizations, kings were seen as representatives of gods. In Egypt, the kings were gods. • Pharaohs – Egyptian god kings. Because Egyptians believed the Pharaoh to be god, their government was considered a theocracy. • Egyptians believed that the Pharaoh bore full responsibility for the kingdom’s wellbeing. • He caused the sun to rise, the Nile to flood, and the crops to grow.
Builders of the Pyramids • Egyptians believed that their king ruled even after his death. • Ka – his eternal life force that continued to take part in government. • Because the king was expected to rule forever, his tomb was more important than his palace.
kings during the Old Kingdom, Egyptians build huge pyramids to serve as the tombs of their Pharaohs. • These were huge engineering achievements.
Egyptian Architecture • Largest is the Great Pyramid • - 756 feet on each side • - 450 feet high (45 stories) • - 2 million stones • - 13 acres (8 football fields)
Inside the Great Pyramid Air Vents G F Pharaoh’s Burial Site Grand Gallery 153 feet E Entrance 2nd Burial Site – Queen’s chamber C A D Escape route 1st Burial Site – Waste disposal B
The pyramids reflect the strength of the Egyptian civilization. They had the economic strength and the technological means to support massive public works projects. They also had strong leadership to direct and carry these projects out.
Egyptian Culture • Answer the questions on your notes using the information posted around the room.