EGYPT • What do you know? • Maps • http://www.kendall-bioresearch.co.uk/egyptmap.htm • http://www.all-about-egypt.com/egypt-tourist-attractions.h
Outlining HEADING (pg #1) - main ideas of the paragraph -main ideas -main ideas HEADING -main idea (pg. #2) main idea - “wadis”- a dry riverbed
Introduction (pg. 1) -Very hot in Egypt THE RIVER BRINGS LIFE TO THE DESERT -four thousand miles long -2 branches- Blue Nile (mtns. of Ethiopia), White Nile(Lake Victoria) -Nile flows Northward -River provides food, transportation. (pg.2)-”The Gift of the Nile” NATURAL FEATURES SURROUND AND PROTECT THE NILE VALLEY -desert covers 96% of Egypt -”wadis”- dry riverbeds
Natural geographical buffers = dry hot heat, huge sea, swamps in the north, rapids and waterfalls • For 2000 years Egypt invaded only 3 times • *Buffers = major reason Egypt flourished WHY STUDY ANCIENT EGYPT? -Gave us basic ideas: geometry, mathematics, astronomy, -architecture ideas – columns, fortresses, drawbridges, -domestication of cats, honey bees, carrier pigeons, -tanning of leather, glass making, mosquito netting, canal and lake construction, paper, study of human anatomy, solar calendar, scientific method of study
The Beginnings • (5) The Earliest Nile Dwellers • Nomads • 5000-7000 years ago • -stone tools • -gatherers, hunters • Beginnings of Agriculture • Probably an accident • Farming led to settlements
Annual flood and the development of Agriculture • Spring snows, mountain flooding – Ethiopia (6) Flooded once a year • Enriched soil**** • Inundation-act of Gods • 3 months flooded then recedes led to Catch basins , dams • Led to irrigation • Shaduf
The Black Land and the Red Land • (7)-Black land= dark silt = fertile area- richest farm land in the world • Kemi= silt • Red land= desert = sand and rock • Red land = Desret • *difference between life in Red land and Black Land
Building with mud bricks • -sun dried bricks- straw, mud, sand • Melts in the rain- repair The Domestication of Animals- -food, work, clothing, companionship Sheep, pigs, donkeys, cattle, geese, Bees, dogs- greyhound, cats (tufted ears) -used sheep, goats to trample seeds
(9)Major Products Wheat, barley, flax- most important Others- grapes, cucumbers, dates, onions, lettuce, chickpeas, figs….and small Popeye figures
Writing chapter- see handouts • hieroglyphic project
Religion chapter- see God chart handout • God Chart project
Hieroglyphics Nick and Katelyn Kelly
Hmmm… What did you say? • HRU • • WRUD 2DAY • • B HOME L8ER • G2G • • CALL ME 2NITE
Writing • HRU (How are you?) • • WRUD 2DAY (What are you doing today?) • • B HOME L8ER (Be home later • G2G (Got to go.) • • CALL ME 2NITE (Call me tonight.).) • Where might you see these types of messages? • What makes this type of communication different from the normal written word?
Communication and writing • Why do people use this form of communication rather than writing complete words and sentences? • What are the advantages of using this type of communication? • What are disadvantages of texting? • Do you think our ways of writing will continue to change with technology? Explain
What is a Hieroglyph Anyway? • Hieroglyphs are what the ancient egyptians used to write with. • They were pictures that meant words or sometimes they were two words combined.
How The Alphabet Works • Hieroglyphs are signs, they are usually divide into 4 categories. They used 27 signs to represent over 700 possible words or meanings • Alphabetic signs represent a single sound. But the Egyptians took most vowels for granted.
How Did People Learn To Write It? • How you would learn to write it would be to attend a special school. • At this school you would learn how to write and read them. • If you learned how to write the langue you would be considered a “Scribe”.
What Are Scribes? • Scribes are people who attended a 5 year school on how to read or write hieroglyphics. • They were usually men but experts have found that there was women doctors and in order to be a doctor they had to be able to read hieroglyphics.
Scribes For a Thought • Not all people could learn how to write, Most often it was the children of scribes. • But many craftsmen were able to get there kids into the school. But, it was very rare
What Did They Write on and With? • They used a plant called papyrus and cut thin layers off the stem. Then laid it flat as in the picture. They then used a mallet. Finally they used a smoothing stone to smooth it out. • They wrote with reed pens which they dipped into ink. • They also carved, and painted on tombs and temple walls
Did They Use Colors? • Yes, Actually hieroglyphs were often written in red and black ink and on papyrus. • They used many colors to do tombs and temple.
How Were Hieroglyphs Found? • By The Rosetta Stone • The Rosetta Stone was found in a village called Rosetta (Rashid). • The Rosetta Stone was found in 1799
About The Rosetta Stone • They think the Rosetta Stone was made in 196 b.c. • The Rosetta Stone was found by French soldiers who were rebuilding a fort in Egypt. • The Rosetta Stone was text written by the priests in Egypt to honor the Pharaohs. It would list all the good things the Pharaohs have done for the people and priests.
Past Use Pictures Only a few people knew how to write and read. They had to use papyrus. Use Reed Pens Present We don’t use pictures Many people know how to write and read our language. We use paper from trees. Use Pencils. Higher level of technology Compare and Contrast
Who owns the Rosetta Stone? • There is a debate on who should “own” the Rosetta Stone. • The British, French or Egypt- • What do you think? • Check on the link to see a ppt debate- • http://www.yellow-springs.k12.oh.us/ys-mls/student4.htm
BibliographyMr.M. used the following sources • http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/writing/explore/school.html We used this for all about scribes and the Rosetta Stone. • http://schools.mukilteo.wednet.edu/ex/Library/ancient%20egypt/ancient_egypt%20student.htm We used this whole site for everything
Writing project • Get into your nomes and find the writing section in your nome booklet. • Do the Hieroglyphic project as directed
Mummies • When you think of a mummy what comes to mind? Most of us usually picture an Egyptian mummy wrapped in bandages and buried deep inside a pyramid. • While the Egyptian ones are the most famous, mummies have been found in many places throughout the world, from Greenland to China to the Andes Mountains of South America.
Mummies • A mummy is the body of a person (or an animal) that has been preserved after death.. • Mummies are made naturally or by embalming, which is any process that people use to help preserve a dead body. • The ancient Egyptians believed that mummifying a person's body after death was essential to ensure a safe passage to the afterlife.
HOW DO YOU MAKE MUMMIES? • Mummification in ancient Egypt was a very long and expensive process. From start to finish, it took about seventy days to embalm a body. • Since the Egyptians believed that mummification was essential for passage to the afterlife, people were mummified and buried as well as they could possibly afford. High-ranking officials, priests and other nobles who had served the pharaoh and his queen had fairly elaborate burials. • The pharaohs, who were believed to become gods when they died, had the most magnificent burials of all. In the case of a royal or noble burial, the embalmers set up workshops near the tomb of the mummy.
Steps of mummification • The art of Egyptian mummification consisted of many steps. • First, the body was washed and ritually purified. • The next step was to remove the deceased person's inner organs. A slit was cut into the left side of the body so that the embalmers could remove the intestines, the liver, the stomach and the lungs. • Each of these organs was embalmed usingnatron, which served to dry out the organs and discourage bacteria from decaying the tissues. • The organs were then individually wrapped using long strips of linen and placed in canopic jars. The lids of these jars were fashioned after the four sons of Horus, who were each suppose to protect a particular organ.
Canopic Jars • Qebehsenuef, the falcon head -- intestinesDuamutef, the jackal head -- stomachHapy, the baboon head -- lungsImsety, the human head -- liver
Don’t need that brain • After the removal of the inner organs, the body cavity was stuffed with natron. The brain was then removed through the nose using long hooks. Since the ancient Egyptians considered the brain unimportant, it was probably thrown away.
Steps continued • The body was then placed on a slanted embalming table and completely covered with natron. This allowed fluids to drip away as the body slowly dried out. • This part of the process took about forty days, after which the natron was removed, inside and out, to reveal a dried, shrunken body. • After another cleaning, the body was rubbed with unguents to aid in preserving the mummy's skin. The head and body cavity were stuffed with packing.
Steps continued • The mummy was then prepared for bandaging. First, the embalming cut in the side of the body was sewn up and covered with a patching depicting the protective eye of Horus. The body was adorned with gold, jewels and protective amulets. Fingers and toes were covered with protective gold caps and individually wrapped with long, narrow strips of linen. Arms and legs were also wrapped, then the entire body was wrapped to a depth of about twenty layers. • The embalmers used resin to glue the layers of wrappings together. The wrapped head was covered with a mummy mask. Finally, the last layer of bandages went on and was given one last coating of resin. The mummy was the ready for burial.
Finally • Once the mummy was finally prepared, it was time for the funeral. The mummy and its canopic jars were transported by sled from the embalming tent to the tomb. • People were hired to demonstrate their grief by crying and throwing dust on their hair. • At the site of the tomb, religious ceremonies were held to prepare the dead for the afterlife. • In particular, the Opening of the Mouth ceremony was believed to allow the mummy to see, hear, eat and drink in the spirit world.
THE AFTERLIFE • The Egyptians believed that every person was composed of three essential elements: body, Ba, and ka. • The body is the physical body and is unique to each individual. As a person gets older, so the body ages and changes - the Egyptians' expressed the idea of growing up as a process of "making changes" - and death is the last change. • Each person also has a Ba. In this sense, Ba is very similar to what we call "personality,” "character," or “soul.” In the afterlife, the Ba is represented as a bird with a human head The Ba or Soul of a dead person
Ka and reunification • Each person also has what is called a ka, or life-force, and it is the ka which is the difference between being alive and being dead. Unlike the Ba, the ka is not individual, but common to all living people and the gods: in the beginning, the creator made ka, and ka enters each person's body at birth. • In the next world, or underworld, the goal is to live with ones ka. In order for this to happen, the ka needs to be summoned back to the body and recognize it. But since the body is bound in its wrappings, it must rely on its Ba to seek out its ka.
Becoming one again • In seeking a union with the ka, the Ba must overcome many potential dangers in the underworld. • But if it does succeed, it will reunite with the ka and form what is called akh. • The Egyptian's believed that there are only three kinds of beings that live in the next world: the dead, the gods, and akhs. • Akhs are those who have successfully made the transition to new life in the next world, where they live with the gods. • The dead are those who have failed to make the transition. It is said that they have "died again," with no hope of renewed life.
The Underworld • The Underworld was apart from this world. One could not see it or get to it by normal means, though. • The Underworld could be reached only through your imagination, and through your knowledge of the path of the sun.
The Underworld • The Underworld was a strange and mysterious place. • mummies were said to sink into this place which was endless, dark, and chaotic. • It was believed that the Underworld was separated from the real world by a wide stream, and that a great river also flowed through it. • There was water, plants and trees in the Underworld as well, where the dead, once they achieved resurrection, would grow crops to live on. • This region of the Underworld is sometimes called the Ealu-fields. From the tomb of Sen-Nedjem (20th Dynasty, 1186-1070 BC), showing Sen-Nedjem and his wife in the fields of Ealu.
From the tomb of Sen-Nedjem (20th Dynasty, 1186-1070 BC), showing Sen-Nedjem and his wife in the fields of Ealu.
The Dangerous Journey • According to the book of Amduat, the Underworld was divided into twelve departments, or hours, and twelve portals that represent the twelve hours of night between the time that the sun sets in the west, and the time it comes up again in the east. • But time in the Underworld is not the same as time on Earth. Each hour in the Underworld represents an entire lifetime. • The sun god, Ra, travels in his boat on the great river, bringing order and life to each department in turn. • Along the way his boat may come across the sandbank of Apophis, a monster of chaos in the shape of a giant serpent and the enemy of Ra, who attempts to wreck Ra's boat.
Ra in the Underworld • But Ra is defended by several gods and goddesses who ride with him and do battle with Apophis. • As Ra comes to the door of each department, the gates open automatically for him. • When he enters he shines sunlight on the darkness and speaks magic words from the Book of Gates and all the mummies throw off their protective wrappings and begin a new life.
Ra’s power • The resurrected live an entire life as long as Ra remains in their department. • When Ra goes on to the next department, the mummies re-wrap themselves in their bandages and return to their tombs, darkness returns, and they begin the wait for Ra's next return. • O gods who are in the Underworld,who are behind the ruler of the West,who are stretched n their side,who are sleeping on their supports,raise your flesh,pull together your bones,collect your limbs,unite your flesh.May there be sweet breath to your noses.Loosing for your mummy wrappings.May your head-masks be uncovered.May there be light for your divine eyesin order that you may see the light by means of them.Stand up from your weariness.
The Book of the Dead • Among the obstacles that could stand in the way of reunion of Ba and ka, and resurrection, the most important was the Judgment of the Dead. • We know of the Judgment mostly from one of the latest and most popular collections of spells known as the Book of the Dead.
Judgment of the Dead • A scene from the Book of the Dead depicts the Judgment of the Dead. Anubis watches the scales; on the right, Thoth records the results; The Devourer next to Anubis, waits to eat sinful hearts. • In the scales are shown the deceased's heart on left, and the feather of Maat on the right.
The heart • The heart of the deceased was placed on one side of a balance. The heart was special to the ancient Egyptians: it was considered the center of a person's personality, and it provided a link between one's life in this world and the next. • It would assure memory of ones earthly identity in the afterlife. So important was it that the Egyptians took special care that the heart be left in the body of the deceased, along with a spell from the Book of the Dead to give the heart back to the dead in the afterlife. (This unlike the brain, which was extracted and discarded.) • On the other side of the balance was placed a feather, symbol of Maat, goddess of truth, justice and order.