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WWI - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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WWI. a nd it’s aftermath. Beginning of WWI. Began with assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand The heir to the Austria-Hungary throne. Beginning of WWI. On July 28, Austria declared war on Serbia Russia mobilized it’s army on German border On August 1, Germany declared war on Russia

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and it’s aftermath

beginning of wwi
Beginning of WWI
  • Began with assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    • The heir to the Austria-Hungary throne
beginning of wwi1
Beginning of WWI
  • On July 28, Austria declared war on Serbia
    • Russia mobilized it’s army on German border
  • On August 1, Germany declared war on Russia
    • Two days later it declared war on France

WWI had begun

mericans the war
‘Mericans & the War
  • Wilson declared the country neutral
  • Many choose sides especially the many new immigrants to the country
  • Most did not want to join the war, but supported the allies
  • Series of events will eventually lead U.S. into the war
moving toward war
Moving Toward War
  • Germans announced they would sink any ship around Britain without warning
  • On May 7, 1915, German U-boats (submarines) sunk the British passenger ship, Lusitania
    • 1200 passengers including 128 ‘Mericans were killed
  • March 1916, a German U-boat sank a French passenger ship, the Sussex, killing more ‘Mericans
moving toward war1
Moving Toward War
  • Germany promised not to sink any more merchant ships without warning with the Sussex Pledge
    • This pledge helped keep the US out of war a little longer
moving toward war2
Moving Toward War
  • Britain intercepted a message sent from Germany to Mexico known as the Zimmerman Telegram
    • It stated that if Mexico entered the war on Germany’s side & attacked U.S., Germany would help Mexico recover lost territory
  • First 3 weeks of March 1917, Germans resumed unrestricted submarine warfare sinking 4 U.S. ships
    • On April 6, Wilson signed a resolution entering U.S. into the Great War
the home front
The Home Front
  • Wilson issued the Selective Service Act of 1917 requiring all men 21-30 to register for draft
    • 2.8 million were drafted and another 2 million volunteered
african americans in the war
African Americans in the War
  • 400,000 were drafted and about 42,000 served overseas as combat troops
    • Discrimination was encountered and they served in segregated units supervised by white officers
    • Several divisions won distinctive awards for their war efforts
women in the military
Women in the Military
  • Women served in the war, but only in non-combat positions
    • Nurses, radio operators, electricians, photographers, pharmacists, torpedo assemblers
  • The Army Nursing Corps served overseas including 10,000 women
the home front1
The Home Front
  • War Industries Board created
    • Oversaw war time productions
      • Raw materials, construction of new factories, manufacturing of goods
paying for the war
Paying For the War
  • Liberty Bonds & Victory Bonds helped raise $ for the war
    • By buying bonds, ‘Mericans were loaning the govt money
    • Taxes were also raised
federal agencies
Federal Agencies
  • Food Administration
    • Supervised agricultural production, promoted food conservation & rationing
  • Fuel Administration
    • Increased production of coal & oil, daylight savings times, Heatless Mondays
federal agencies1
Federal Agencies
  • National War Labor Board
    • Oversaw cooperation between industry and labor unions
  • Committee on Public Information
    • Used propaganda to rally support for war effort
women support industries
Women Support Industries
  • Increased opportunity for women
    • Took jobs vacated by men in the military
      • Factory & manufacturing jobs, shipping & railraod
  • After the war, many women were replaced by men
the great migration
The Great Migration
  • Between 300k-500k African Americans left the south to fill factory jobs in the north
    • Changed the racial makeup of northern cities and caused tensions after the war
supreme court limits free speech
Supreme Court Limits Free Speech
  • In landmark case Schenck v U.S., court ruled free speech could be altered during times of “clear and present danger”
    • Controlled public opinion and stopped antiwar protests
the conflict
The Conflict
  • Trench Warfare – “No Man’s Land”
    • Reliance on machine gun
  • New Technology
    • Poison gas, tank, airplanes
the conflict1
The Conflict
  • soldiers were sent overseas were nicknamed “doughboys”
  • U.S. used convoys to take troops over seas to protect from German U-boat attacks
    • No lives were lost at sea
the conflict2
The Conflict
  • March 1917, Russia leaves the war with the outbreak of the Bolshevik Revolution allowing Germany to focus fighting the western front
the war ends
The War Ends
  • Nov. 11 1918, fighting came to an end when Germany signed an armistice, cease fire, that ended the war
  • Wilson came up with his Fourteen Points, plan to rebuild after the war with the League of Nations being formed to help keep peace
  • Allies thought Wilson’s plan was too lenient
the war ends1
The War Ends
  • Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles, in June 1919
    • Forced to pay $33 billions in reparations, war damages, to the Allies
    • Required Germany to take guilt for the outbreak of the war
the war ends2
The War Ends
  • Russian and Ottoman empire will dissolve
  • Austria-Hungary split into separate countries
  • 9 new countries established including Yugoslavia & Poland
the war s impact
The War’s Impact

Effects of WWI on Economy

Mass demand for goods

Rapid Inflation


rapid inflation
Rapid Inflation
  • Rationing ends leading people to start buying these goods
    • With a high demand the prices rise about 15 cents a year
    • Inflation greatly increased the cost of living
  • Inflation increased businesses operating costs. They wanted to keep wages low to compensate
    • Strikes occurred because workers wanted higher wages to keep up with inflation
the red scare
The Red Scare
  • ‘Mericans became anti-German during and after the war & anti-communist when Russia withdrew
  • Communism became associated with being unpatriotic and disloyal
the red scare1
The Red Scare
  • The Red Scare became a nationwide panic that Communists, or “reds”, might seize power
  • Postal Service caught over 30 letters to leading businessmen that exploded when opened suggesting a country wide conspiracy
    • Most believed the bombs were the work of Communists or other revolutionaries
the red scare2
The Red Scare
  • Palmer Raids, led by General Palmer, were raids on headquarters of radical organizations and homes of suspicious people accused of being led by reds
    • Run through the General Intelligence Division, soon to be FBI, led by J Edgar Hoover
    • Palmer loss credibility when he started predicting events that didn’t occur