WWI. The Great War Ch.23. How did it all start???. 1914: Two great alliances Triple Entente- Britain, France, Russia Triple Alliance - Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Italy
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The Great War
1914: Two great alliances
Triple Entente- Britain, France, Russia
Triple Alliance- Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Italy
Sarajevo: June 28, 1914: Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir apparent to the throne) assassinated by Serbian terrorist.
Vienna, July 23: Austrian gov. issues an ultimatum threatening war against Serbia and invades 4 days later.
Berlin, August 1: As Austria’s ally, Germany declares war against Russia, an ally of Serbia.
Berlin, August 3: Germany declares war against France, an ally of Russia, and begins an invasion of Belgium.
London, August 4: Great Britain an ally of France, declares war against Germany.
Britain, France, Italy, Russia, USA
Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire.
Not the United State’s issue/business.
Issues with Neutrality:
Many Americans sympathize with both sides.
Reports of German atrocities
Complete neutrality would have sunk American trade/business.
The US could survive without Central Powers.
The US decides trade with France and Britain are a necessity.
US: J.P Morgan and other bankers give $3 billion in loans to Britain and France.
*Huge economic boom and major supplier of the Allies.
Germans start using submarine warfare.
Sink Lusitania: (1915) Kill 128 Americans.
Attack the Sussex: Injured several Americans.
Wilson very anti-war and anti-preparedness.(needless and provocative)
Mind changes because of Germany’s actions
1916 Election- Democrats cheer that Wilson didn’t get the US into war.
Wilson barely wins reelection.
Wilson wanted a rational for war.
US wanted to create a new world order
Promoted a league of nations and a “peace without victory.”
Shortly after Wilson was sworn in, he asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany. April 2, 1917
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- Early 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare.
Zimmerman Telegram- March 1, US newspapers printed shocking news of a secret telegram sent from Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico that proposed Mexico ally with Germany: Pledged Mexico would get their lost territories back.
Russian Revolution- “Moral Diplomacy” but Russia was governed by an autocratic czar. Russian revolutionaries overthrew the czar’s government and proclaimed a republic.
Renewed submarine attacks- March, German submarines sank 5 unarmed U.S merchant ships.
1917- Virtual stalemate
Americans have a huge influence in the sea.
1)Americans help attack U-boats
2) Escort merchant vessels.
3) Protect US soldiers going to Europe.
Russia withdrew from the war, Britain and France were running low on reserves.
*Americans had to send ground troops*
US had a tiny standing army.
Few experienced in combat, and lacked training.
Create a national draft (Selective Service Act)
3 million men came into the army and 2 million volunteered = (AEF)
Trench warfare caused terrible moral.
-Rats, lice, mud, spoiled food, boredom, fear.
1/10 American soldiers acquired a venereal disease.
Women-Menial jobs, not allowed to fight in combat.
African Americans-served in segregated units. Given menial tasks. Hoped it may change racial perceptions.
IQ tests- Reveal extreme disparity in education.
Spring 1918, Americans send ground troops.
General John J. Pershing led the American forces.
Description of fighting:
“No man’s land”
Thoughts of an endless war
Chateau Thierry June 1918- American troops helped the French hold off a German offensive.
Americans help hold off another attack 6 weeks later at Rheims. (Put an end to German offensive)
Meuse-Argonne Offensive- Americans help attack Germans in the Argonne Forest
Germans are forced back to their border and hurt their supply lines.
Germany had to decide to have warfare in their country or surrender.
November 11, 1918, the Germans surrendered.
Improved machine guns and artillery.
Chemical Warfare: (Poisonous mustard gas)