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Chapter 18: The Eastern Mediterranean. 7 th Grade Social Studies. CHAPTER 18. The Eastern Mediterranean. Section 1: Physical Geography Section 2: Turkey Section 3: Israel and the Occupied Territories Section 4: Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. Bosporus Sea of Marmara Jordan River

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slide2

CHAPTER 18

The Eastern Mediterranean

Section 1:Physical Geography

Section 2:Turkey

Section 3:Israel and the Occupied Territories

Section 4:Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan

section 1 physical geography
Bosporus

Sea of Marmara

Jordan River

Dead Sea

Taurus Mts.

Serian Desert

Negev

Dardanelles

Mesopotamia

Pontic Mts.

Section 1: Physical Geography

X

X

main ideas
Main Ideas
  • The eastern Mediterranean region, where Europe, Asia, and Africa meet, is a geographical, economic, and cultural crossroads. The region has made many contributions to world civilization. It has also been the scene of many conflicts over the years.
main ideas1
Main Ideas
  • Judaism and Christianity began in the region. Both faiths have affected American culture, no matter what religion one might follow.
  • The U.S. has been a supporter of Israel since its creation. This policy has contributed to anti-American feelings and actions among some Arabs.
vocabulary
Vocabulary
  • phosphatesMineral salts containing the element phosphorus; used to make fertilizers
  • asphaltThe tarlike material used to pave streets
slide7

SECTION 1

Physical Geography

THE EASTERNMEDITERRANEAN

Physical Features

Climate Types

Resources

Balkan Peninsula, Dardanelles, Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Euphrates River, Jordan River, Dead Sea, Syrian Desert, Negev

Mediterranean, desert, humid subtropical

limited farmland and pastureland, sulfur, mercury, phosphates, asphalt

main ideas2
Main Ideas
  • Turkey lies on two continents.
  • The most common climate of the region is dry.
  • Areas with rain or irrigation are used for commercial farming, drier areas are used for subsistence farming and herding. Mineral resources support mining.
vocabulary1
Vocabulary
  • secularKept separate from religion, as in a secular government or state
main ideas3
Main Ideas
  • How did Atatürk try to modernize Turkey?
  • Atatürk modernized Turkey because he banned the fez, introduced the Latin alphabet, the European calendar, the metric system, and increased women’s roles.
  • Olives, vegetable, cheese, yogurt, bread, and shish kebab are popular Turkish foods
slide13

SECTION 2

Turkey

EVENTS AND ERAS IN TURKISH HISTORY

Kemal Atatürk gains power and establishes modern Turkey

Alexander the Great conquers the area

Seljuk Turks invade

Ottoman Turks invade and establish an empire

main ideas4
Main Ideas
  • Technology has allowed Israel to increase its food production because of water for irrigation.
  • When it was created people moved to Israel from countries around the world which made it a culturally diverse region.
vocabulary2
Vocabulary
  • DiasporaThe scattering of the Jewish population from Palestine under Roman rule
  • ZionismThe movement to establish a Jewish country or community in Palestine
slide17
(4:15)

Jerusalem

slide18

SECTION 3

Diversity

82 percent Jewish; Palestinian Muslims and Christians

Creation of Israel

formed in 1948

Economy

high-tech equipment, cut diamonds, tourism

Government

prime minister and parliament, or Knesset

ISRAEL

Languages

Hebrew, Arabic, English, Russian, German, Hungarian, Yiddish

Foods and Festivals

foods influenced by Jewish religious laws; Yom Kippur and Passover important holidays

Israel and the Occupied Territories

slide19

Section 4

Lebanon

Syria

Jordan

main ideas5
Main Ideas
  • Hafiz al-Assad ruled Syria from 1971 to 2001 and increased the size of the military.
  • Religious and political divisions between Christians and Muslims lead to conflict in Lebanon.
  • Jordan does not border the Mediterranean Sea.
vocabulary3
Vocabulary
  • mandateFormer territories of defeated World War I countries that were placed under the control of winning countries after the war
slide23

SECTION 4

Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan

JORDAN’S HISTORY

Event

Summary

Significance

foreign influence in creation of country

Great Britain drew borders after WWI

borders established

Abdullah named as monarch

British ally named to rule country

monarchy established

full independence gained in 1940s

independence from foreign rule

independence

annexed Arab lands of the West Bank

war with Israel

war of 1948

wars between Arab nations and Israel

Palestinian refugees immigrate to Jordan

Arab-Israeli wars

considered one of the best rulers of region

King Hussein rules from 1952 to 1999

rule of Hussein

slide24

CHAPTER 18

Chapter Wrap-Up

1. People and customs from what three continents have influenced the eastern Mediterranean region?

2. What three major religions have holy sites in Jerusalem?

3. How has westernization changed Turkey’s government, economy, and culture?

4. What is the conflict over the Occupied Territories?

5. How do people in this area make their living from the land?