Atlantic Ocean Mediterranean Sea Britain Portugal Spain Belgium France Russia Switzerland Italy Austria-Hungary Luxembourg Germany Serbia Montenegro Ottoman Empire Albania Greece Bulgaria Romania Denmark Netherlands Norway Sweden MAP Label the following on your map in ink. Color the countries based on their alliance. Orange-Central Powers, Yellow – Neutral and Green – Allies. Make a Key/Legend for the colors in the box. Use the map on page 375. Neatness counts. You will have only 15 minutes to complete the map. Do not waste your time!
Week 5 Journal 19 For Monday’s Journal write Map Activity. Read the yellow booklet on your desk. Answer the questions below in Tuesday’s section. • Who is Archduke Ferdinand? • What happened to bring Great Britain into the war? • Who is Woodrow Wilson? • Why did the US decide to send supplies to the Allies? • How long did the war last? • Tell one change that took place in the US as a result of World War I.
US Entry to World War answer the following Situation 1 War breaks out in Europe between two great alliance systems called Central Powers and Allies. The disputed issues have nothing to do with the United States. Both alliances want to buy American goods. What should the US do? 1. Sell to both alliances 2. Sell only to one alliance 3. Do not sell to either alliance 4. Other (specify)
Remember these people? • Pancho Villa • American Engineers • General Pershing • What are relations like between the countries represented here? • What do you think this has to do with World War I?
Section 1 World War I Begins
LONG TERM CAUSES • Nationalism • Imperialism • Militarism • Alliance System • Triple Entente’ • Central Powers
THE ROAD TO WAR • Balkan Peninsula • Archduke Ferdinand • July 28, 1914 Black Hand GavrilloPrincip • Domino Effect
US Entry into World War I Situation 2 The Central Powers attack and quickly defeat a small neutral nation. Gruesome stories appear in American newspapers about the atrocities committed by the Central Powers against people of the defeated country. What should the US do? • Do nothing, since it doesn’t concern the US • Stop selling products to the Central Powers • Issue a statement condemning the Central Powers’ actions • Declare war on the Central Powers • Other (specify)
THE FIGHTING STARTS • Germans • Kaiser Wilhelm III • Trench Warfare • Joseph Glidden • Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant • No Man’s Land
US Entry into World War I Situation 3 The Allies stop United States ships and confiscates goods purchased by the Central Powers. The Allies ignore formal complaints by the United States. What should the US do?
AMERICAN STAND ON THE WAR • Neutrality • William Jennings Bryan • Opposition • Naturalized Citizens • Socialists – Eugene V. Debs • Pacifists – Henry Ford • Andrew Carnegie • Sympathy for Allies • German Aggression • US Economic Ties
US Entry into World War I Situation 4 The Allies blockade the ports of The Central Powers which, in desperation, used submarines to attack all ships sailing to and from the ports of The Allies. Neutral US ships, which are protected by international laws are sunk by the submarines. What should the US do?
THE ROAD TO US INVOLVEMENT • British Blockade • Contraband • Winston Churchill • German U-Boat Counter Blockade
US Entry into World War I Situation 5 A Central Power submarine sinks a luxury liner belonging to the Allies. Over one thousand passengers drown including 100 vacationing Americans. The Central Powers boast about its actions. What should the US do?
US Entry into World War I Situation 6 The Central Powers promise to stop sinking liners without first warning them and providing for the passengers’ safety. The Central Powers soon disregard its promise and resumes unrestricted submarine warfare on neutral American ships. What should the US do?
US Entry into World War I Situation 7 America learns that the Central Powers asked Mexico to aid in an attack against the US if America enters the war. In return, parts of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona that originally belonged to Mexico will be returned. What should the US do?
THE ROAD TO US INVOLVEMENT • American Reactions • Lusitania - 1915 • Wilson Talks to Germany • Sussex Pledge • May 1916 – January 1917 • National Defense Act of 1916 – June 3 • Strengthened the scope of the National Guard and guaranteed its status as our reserve military
NEUTRALITY COLLAPSES • Campaign Slogan - - - “He kept us out of war!” • Wilson’s Speech • Germany stop or we will get involved • Zimmerman Telegraph • Arthur Zimmerman • January 1917 • April 2, 1917
SECTION 2 AMERICAN POWER TIPS THE BALANCE
AMERICA MOBILIZES • Conscription – forced military service • Selective Service Act • Training • Where is the fighting? • So we have to. . . . . • Produce and ship goods • Transport Troops Marquis Claude Wiginton 1917
BUILDING A BRIDGE • Four Steps • Ship yard workers • Service flags • Fabrication • Government takeovers • CONVOY SYSTEM
Once in Europe the Doughboys. . . . • General Foch • Dorothy Lawrence • General Pershing • Request – bilingual switchboard operators • OledaJoure
Week 5 Journal 20 1. Divide your journal section into two columns • Head the first column “Central Powers” • Head the second column “Triple Entente” • When the war started these were the alliances. List the 3 countries for the Triple Entente and 5 countries for the Central Powers. ( when the war started – before 1915) 2. Which of these alliances became known as the “Allies”? 3. What country left the Central Powers and why? 4. What country left the Allies and why?
FIGHTING IN EUROPE • New Weapons • Big Bertha • Zeppelins • Machine Guns • Mechanized Warfare • Eddie Rickenbacker • Manfred Richthofen • Red Barron • Medical Care • Red Cross • Helen Gwynne-Vaughan • Emma Elizabeth Weaver
American Troops Go on the Offensive • Italy - 1915 – Vittorio Orlando • Russia • Vladimir Lenin • Bolshevik Party • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk • Tsar Nicholas II • Fresh Troops make the difference
THE TIDE TURNS • Western Front • Alvin York • Conscientious Objector
THE COLLAPSE OF GERMANY SURRENDER • November 3, 1918 • Kaiser Wilhelm III • Mutiny • 11th Hour – 11th Day – 11th Month
SECTION 3 THE WAR AT HOME
CONGRESS GIVES POWER TO WILSON • During times of war, congress gives the president a little more freedom with his powers
DIRECT ECONOMIC CONTROL • entire economy must be mobilized • consumer goods to making war supplies • Wilson could set prices and regulate war related industries
WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD • Encouraged industries to increase efficiency and use mass production • Price controls were placed on the wholesale level but not retail • Prices went up for consumers and profits went up for owners
SIDE EFFECTS OF CONTROLS • Corsets • 8,000 tons of steel • Make two battle ships • Tall leather boots • Soldiers’ boots • Long skirts • Uniforms • Gasless Sundays, lightless nights… • March 1918 – Daylight savings time
WAR ECONOMY sweetless wheatless • Wages in some industries rose • Others did not but the prices continued to rise • National War Labor Board – Bernard Baruch • Established by Wilson to deal with disputes between workers and management • His answer WORK OR FIGHT ! • Food Administration – Herbert Hoover • Helped produce and conserve food meatless Victory Gardens
SELLING THE WAR • War financing • US spent about 33 billion on the war • 1/3 from taxes the other from WAR BONDS • Liberty Bonds and Victory Bonds • Committee on Public Information • Organized to popularize the war • Propaganda • Posters • “Four Minute Men”
ATTACKS ON CIVIL LIBERTIES • Anti-immigrant hysteria • Foreign born Americans were attacked • Mainly German and Austria-Hungarians • Even Native-born Americans of German descent • Lost jobs • No music of German artists • Anti-German acts • Hamburger, sauerkraut, dachshunds
ESPIONAGE ACT • June 1917 • Illegal to spy against your country • Schenck v. The United States - 1919
SEDITION ACT • May 1918 • Established penalties for • interfering with the draft • Obstructing war bonds • Being anti-war • Some newspapers lost mail privileges because of articles printed • Socialists were targeted with these acts • Eugene V. Debs
SOCIAL CHANGES DURING WORLD WAR I • African Americans and the War • Opinion was divided but most supported the war • The Great Migration • The war accelerated migration north • Factors • Escape racial discrimination • Boll weevils, floods and droughts • Assembly lines/factory jobs • WW I and drop in immigration numbers opened jobs
Women and the War • Women found themselves filling jobs that were traditionally held by men • Some participated in the peace movement • 19th amendment was passed
Flu Epidemic • 1/4th of US population suffered • It was an international epidemic • Businesses closed • Coffin shortage
SECTION 4 WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE
Wilson Presents His Plan • Fourteen Points • Presented to congress 1/18/18 • Three groups – divide section into three columns • 1. -No secret treaties -freedom of the seas - Reduce arms -Colonial policies be considerate of all involved
2. -The next eight dealt with specific boundaries - Ethnic groups could decide for themselves what country they belonged to
3. Last point called for the organization of the LEAGUE OF NATIONS • Discuss and settle disputes before going to war
ALLIES REJECT WILSON’S PLAN • Each had their own reason for rejecting the plan