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Classical Mediterranean

Classical Mediterranean

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Classical Mediterranean

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  1. Classical Mediterranean Mr. Stikes

  2. SSWH3 The student will examine the political, philosophical, and cultural interaction of Classical Mediterranean societies from 700 BCE to 400 CE. a. Compare the origins and structure of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire. b. Identify the ideas and impact of important individuals; include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle and describe the diffusion of Greek culture by Aristotle’s pupil Alexander the Great and the impact of Julius and Augustus Caesar. c. Analyze the contributions of Hellenistic and Roman culture; include law, gender, and science. d. Describe polytheism in the Greek and Roman world and the origins and diffusion of Christianity in the Roman world. e. Analyze the factors that led to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.

  3. WHO?

  4. WHO? • Minoans • Mycenaeans • Greeks • Spartans • Athenians • Etruscans • Romans • Carthaginians

  5. WHEN?

  6. When? • 700 B.C. – A.D. 400

  7. WHERE?

  8. You are here Greece and Rome Rome Greece China Mesopotamia Egypt India

  9. Greece & Rome PURPOSE OF SECTION: • Compare the origins and structure of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire.

  10. Early Greece • Greek civilization developed along the Balkan peninsula

  11. Greece’s Physical Geography • Low-lying mountains make up ¾ of the mainland • Mountains protect & isolate • Long coastline with many harbors • No part of Greece is more than 50 miles from the coast • Mild Climate

  12. Greece’s Physical Geography

  13. Greece’s Physical Geography Regions: Macedonia Thessaly Ionia Peninsulas: Attica Peloponnesus Seas: Aegean Ionian Islands: Crete

  14. Early Aegean Civilizations • Early Aegean civilization arose on the island of Crete • We call these people the Minoans, after their legendary king, Minos CRETE

  15. Minoan Civilization • The Minoan Civilization flourished from 2700 B.C.E. - 1450 B.C.E.

  16. Minoan Civilization • Discovered by modern times by Sir Arthur Evans in 1900 • Excavated Knossos, a large palace on Crete • We don’t know much about the Minoans • Why? • Language we don’t understand or read • Relatively new discovery End here on 9/17

  17. Minoan Civilization • Language: • Non Indo-European or Greek • Society • Wealthy, but generous to others • Government built houses for poor • Wealth seems to be distributed • Concerned with leisure activities and sports

  18. Minoan Civilization • Government: • “Bureaucratic monarchy” • Trading peoples • Government depended on international trade throughout the Mediterranean • Why? • Unconcerned with invasion from other groups • Little military structures were discovered

  19. Minoan Civilization • Technologies • Plumbing systems (lost) • Writing • Linear A • Linear B

  20. End of Minoan Civilization • Archaeological evidence shows us that the palaces of Crete were destroyed by a series of great earthquakes and volcanoes

  21. Mycenaean Civilization • Group of peoples from central Asia who entered the Balkan peninsula around 2000 B.C.E. • Divided present-day Greece into a number of kingdoms, each centered around a capital city

  22. Mycenaean Civilization • Cities were built on hilltops • Royal fortress built on top of hill • City walls surrounded the hill • Most people lived outside the walls and entered on a daily basis to conduct business • Served as protection in case of attack

  23. Mycenaean Civilization • The Mycenaeans eventually conquered the Minoans • They adopted much of Minoan culture • Most famous Mycenaean story/man: • The Illiad • Agamemnon

  24. Fall of the Mycenaean Civilization • The Mycenaeans were eventually defeated by the Dorians • Dorians invaded from the north • Used iron weapons to defeat the bronze weapons of the Mycenaeans

  25. Dorian Civilization • The Dorians ruled all of Greece from 1100 to around 750 B.C.E. • The period of Dorian rule has traditionally been called Greece’s “Dark Age” • What is a Dark Age?

  26. Dorian “Dark Age” • Overseas trade stopped • Poverty increased • Lost ability to write • Traditions and stories were maintained by bards (traveling storytellers) • Thousands left mainland Greece and settled in Ionia (present day Turkey)

  27. Ionian Restoration • The Ionians eventually overcame the Dorians and “culture” returned • We call this new civilization “Hellenic”

  28. What is a Polis? Polis: Ancient Greek city-state

  29. Origin of the Polis • By the 8th century B.C., cities began to develop into city-states • How? • Differs by city • Theories • Public Building Theory • Rural Sanctuary Theory • Burial Practice Theory • Geographic Determinism Theory • Colonization Theory

  30. Origin of Polis • Happened to all Greek city-states around the same time • Governments of Greek Poleis were unique to their city • Athens – democratic • Megara – despotic • Boeotia – federal • Corinth – oligarchic

  31. Common Characteristics of Greek Poleis • Acropolis: • Fortress on top of a hill • Site of temple • Center of city • Agora: • Public square • Sat at foot of acropolis • Site of business transactions and political affairs

  32. A Representative Greek Polis

  33. The Two Great Poleis: Sparta and Athens

  34. Sparta • Located on the Peloponnesian peninsula

  35. Sparta • Government: (developed by Lycurgus) • Two kings (called basileis) • Did not rule in traditional sense, but were basically nobles with special privileges • Held power to declare war • Council of Elders (called gerousia) • 28 men plus 2 kings • Requirements: Spartan men over 60 • Could veto assembly, replace a king, and acted as a court

  36. Sparta • Government: • Assembly of Citizens (called apella) • All Spartan men over 30 • Elected members of Council of Elders and five Ephors • Approved or denied decisions by Council of Elders and Ephors • Ephors • 5 men • Much power • (basically governed day to day life in Sparta)

  37. Sparta • Society • 3 Levels • Top - Spartans (Spartiates) • Citizens, had to undergo formal military training • Descended from original inhabitants of Sparta • Military group – did not perform other tasks • Middle – perioeci • Free, but not citizens • No political power, but conducted trade for Spartans • Bottom – helots • Slaves • No rights, worked the land and performed other labors

  38. Sparta • Education/Military Training • All Spartan male citizens were required to become soldiers • Birth to age 7: all children raised by mother • Age 7: male children taken from their homes; all live in barracks and are organized into groups of 60; children play games, learn about Spartan customs, and learn how to survive • Age 12: each student received an older Spartan soldier as a mentor; continue to live in barracks

  39. Sparta • Education/Military Training • Age 20: Allowed to marry, but lived in barracks • Age 30: Became member of Assembly, allowed to live at home • Age 60: Retired from army, eligible to be elected member of Council of Elders

  40. Sparta • Status of Women • More free than in other parts of Greece • Could own property, move about the city, etc. • Could not participate in politics • Married later (19 as opposed to 14) • Received an education and physical training • Were expected to manage husband’s affairs during war

  41. Athens • Located on the Attic peninsula

  42. Monarchy Oligarchy Limited Democracy Athens • Government • Development

  43. Athens • Reformers • Draco – first written law code • Solon – cancels debts, moves Athens towards democracy • Peisistratus – divided land, gave citizenship to landless peasants, public works program • Cleisthenes – broke power of aristocracy, increased power of the Assembly

  44. Athens • Government • Council of 500 • Chosen by lottery amongst all citizens • Carried out work of the government • Other • Ostracism – citizens write names of unwanted persons who would be expelled after 6,000 votes • Jury System – 201 to 1,001 members

  45. Athens • Education • Focused on the arts and philosophy • From age 7 to age 14 • Privatized – parents had to pay • Studied grammar, arithmetic, geometry, music and gymnastics, the Iliad and Odyssey • At later ages, rhetoric was added • 2 years of military training at age 18

  46. Sparta Peloponnesus Oligarchic gov’t Warrior state Population in 430 B.C. 100,000 Strong Army Militaristic Society Athens Attica Democratic gov’t Trading state Population in 430 B.C. 140,000 Strong Navy Emphasis on Culture Sparta v. Athens

  47. Persian Wars • In the 6th century B.C.E., the Greek poleis in Ionia were conquered by the Lydians • Remember the Lydians? Why were they important? • In 546 B.C.E., the Lydians were conquered by the Persians • This means that the Persians now controlled the Ionian Greek city-states

  48. Persian Wars • The Greeks in Ionian did not like the way they were treated by the Persians • Heavy Taxes • Draft • Interference into local government • In response, they revolted • 502 B.C.E. to 498 B.C.E. – Ionian Revolt

  49. Persian Wars Revolt led by Aristagoras of Miletus • Helped by Athens and Eretria • Captured city of Sardis and burned it

  50. Persian Wars • In response, the Persians attacked and defeated the rebels • The Persian Emperor Darius wanted to punish Athens and Eretria for helping the rebels • In response, Persia launched a fleet carrying between 25,000 and 100,000 troops (accounts vary)