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Chapter 3: An Emerging New Nation (1763 – 1861)
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Chapter 3: An Emerging New Nation (1763 – 1861)

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  1. Chapter 3: An Emerging New Nation(1763 – 1861)

  2. Section 1Life in the New Nation

  3. Setting the Scene • Daniel Boone • cut the Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap • began in Eastern Tennessee, ended in what in now Louisville, KY • became the main route to the lands west of the Appalachians

  4. America’s Population: Growing and Young • westward surge was evidence of a growing population • average American woman had about five children

  5. Territorial Expansion • land north of the Ohio River • became Michigan Territory and three new states: Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois • “Old America seems to be breaking up and moving westward. We are seldom out of sight, as we travel on this grand track towards the Ohio, of family groups behind and before us, some [intending to go] to a particular spot, close to a brother perhaps, or [to] a friend who has gone before and reported well of the country.” • Morris Birkbeck

  6. Northwest Territory – land north of the Ohio River had been closed to slavery by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • yet they made laws to discourage African Americans from moving there

  7. Expansion into Florida • Pinckney Treaty of 1795 – the southern boundary of the United States had been set at 31°N latitude • Spain and the United States agreed to control the Native Americans living within each country’s territories and to prevent them from attacking the other country’s territory

  8. Jackson and Florida • Seminoles were coming from Florida and raiding settlers in Georgia • Andrew Jackson – was sent to stop the Native Americans and invaded Florida claiming possession of the western half of the territory • John Quincy Adams (6th President) accused Spain of breaking the Pinckney Treaty by failing to control the Seminoles

  9. Spain reluctantly agreed to accept the loss of Florida • Transcontinental Treaty or Adams-Onís Treaty • Spain gave up FL as well as its claims on the Pacific Northwest • fixed the boundary between the Louisiana Purchase and Spanish territory in the West

  10. Texas and Oregon Country • government assumed that the lands of the Louisiana Purchase would remain part of “Indian Country” - settlers had a different idea • Mexico and Texas • Stephen F. Austin – founded a colony in Mexican Texas and began settling families there • newcomers called for the same rights from the Mexican government that they had possessed in the United States

  11. The Texas War for Independence • General Antonio López de Santa Anna – stripped Texas of its rights of self-government

  12. Alamo • William Travis and James Bowie hoped to slow the general’s advance long enough to allow their fellow rebels to assemble an army • Mexican Army – overwhelmed the Alamo and killed most of those inside • Goliad • Santa Anna ordered the killing of more than 300 Texans • these two events enraged and energized the Texans

  13. March 2, 1836 – rebels formally declared the founding of an independent Republic of Texas • San Jacinto – the Texans captured and defeated Santa Anna, forcing him to recognize the Republic of Texas • Sam Houston – elected as the first president

  14. The Oregon Country • stretched from northern California to the southern border of Alaska • 1842 – organized wagon trains carried masses of migrants to Oregon along Indian trails • began in Independence, Missouri for the 2,000 mile journey

  15. Treaty of 1846 – the United States and Great Britain agreed to divide the Oregon Country along the 49th parallel • westward migration brought the creation of new cities, new territories, new states • Iowa (1846) • Wisconsin (1848) • Minnesota (1868)

  16. The Spirit of Improvement • reflects the ideals of the Enlightenment • Improvement Through Education • people believed that the general condition of humankind could be improved by schooling • Noah Webster – first major dictionary of American English

  17. wanted schools to develop character by promoting certain virtues • republican virtues – the virtues the American people would need to govern themselves in the new republic • self-reliance, industry, frugality, harmony, sacrifice of individual needs for the good of the community • The Role of Women • women had such virtues as honesty, self-restraint, and discipline that they should teach to young men • most schools were for boys only • some would create “female departments”

  18. The Industrial Revolution • Americans developed and profited from a variety of inventions that produced goods and materials faster and more cheaply • Industrial Revolution – ongoing effort over many decades to increase production by using machines powered by sources other than humans or animals

  19. James Watt’s – British inventor of the steam engine • British jealously guarded all knowledge of their new technology and forbade designers from emigrating (moving out of the country)

  20. New Technology Comes to America • Samuel Slater – emigrated to the United States after working in the British textile industry • reproduced the complicated machinery of the British mills

  21. Eli Whitney and Interchangeable Parts • signed a contract to make 10,000 guns • realized that if all the parts were made exactly alike, they could be used on any of the guns • other inventors later perfected the system of interchangeable parts – where all parts are made to an exact standard

  22. The Cotton Gin • Whitney visited the South • noticed that it took a laborer one day to clean one pound of cotton • cotton gin – machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers • could now clean 1,000 pounds per day

  23. as a result of the cotton gin, planters bought more enslaved Africans to work on the new and expanded cotton plantations • helped to keep the southern states a land of slavery and of farming, while the northern states became a land of free labor and industry • these fundamental differences between North and South would help lead to civil war

  24. Transportation and Communication • Steam Power • Robert Fulton – proved that steam could be used to power a ship with his steamboat Clermont • demonstrated that a steamboat could travel against the current

  25. Canals - artificial waterways • Erie Canal – connected the Hudson River with Lake Erie • people and goods could now travel easily between the Atlantic Coast and the Great Lakes

  26. Roads • National or Cumberland Road was built to last • financed by the government • however, most of the new roads were privately built and paid for by collecting tolls • Railroads • steam-locomotive ~ a self-propelled vehicle used for pulling railroad cars (Baltimore and Ohio [B&O] Line)

  27. with the transportation revolution, communication expanded (Postal Service) • regular mail delivery helped create a national network of information in the form of newspapers, magazines, and books

  28. The Second Great Awakening • the pressures of a changing society led many people to renew their religious faith • Second Great Awakening – great religious movement of the early 1800s among Protestant Christians • revival – gathering at which people were “revived” or brought back to a religious life • New Denominations • denomination – religious subgroup • Baptists,Methodists,Unitarians,Mormons

  29. African American Worship • black and white religious traditions blended together • spirituals – folk hymns • African Americans started their own churches

  30. Section 2The Market Revolution

  31. Setting the Scene • July 4, 1826 • 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence • on that day, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both passed away

  32. An Expanding Economy • Market Revolution – change in the way Americans made, bought, and sold goods • The Rise of Manufacturing • manufacturing – making of products by machinery • rivers helped to supply the power • Francis Cabot Lowell – created the first truly centralized textile factory in the world; where all tasks involved in making a product were carried out in one place

  33. The Free Enterprise System • economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods; investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state control; and determined in a free market • capitalism – rewards people who can find better, faster, and more efficient ways of running their businesses • encourages the creation of new industries, jobs, and wealth • as products became available and people worked for money, Americans began to shop

  34. The Rise of the Banking Industry • capital – wealth that can be invested to produce goods and make money • businesses used capital to buy land or to invest in money-making projects • banks provided the capital • bank made money by charging interest for the loans it made

  35. unlike today the government did not require banks to keep a certain amount of cash on hand • banks sometimes lacked the cash to give to depositors who wanted to withdraw money • 1. this would then cause a panic – where people rush to the banks to get their money out before the banks went broke • 2. caused wild booms and followed by panics, bank failures, and depressions

  36. Bank Notes • bank note was a piece of paper that banks issued to their customers • similar to checks today, it was a promise to pay specie (coins of gold or silver) on demand • unfortunately the value of this money was unpredictable

  37. The Northern Economy • Northwest Farming, Northeast Industry • Old Northwest – ideal for growing corn, wheat, and other grains • Northeast – worked in factories • Industrialization – growth of industry • Lowell, Massachusetts • hired young, unmarried women from New England farms • provided boarding houses; worked six days a week, twelve hours a day, tending the machines

  38. The Rise of Labor Unions • most factory owners paid their employees little and did not provide benefits such as housing or food • only real weapon of workers was a strike – or work stoppage • labor union – organization of workers formed to protect their interests, usually by negotiating to resolve issues such as wages and working conditions • National Trades Union (NTU) – first national labor union

  39. The Southern Economy • A Rural Economy • South remained mostly a rural region of farms and countryside • fertile soil, plentiful rain, and 200 to 290 frost-free days in which to grow crops • cotton, tobacco, sugar, breeding of thoroughbred horses

  40. The Slavery System • Constitution specified that Congress could not end the slave trade before 1808 • that year, they banned the further importation of slaves • continued population growth among people already enslaved, led to a dramatic increase

  41. Slave Revolts • rebellions, especially on a large scale, stood little chance of success • Denmark Vesey – plotted to seize the city of Charleston; troops smashed the rebellion before it could get started • Vesey and thirty-four others were hung • Nat Turner – carried out a violent uprising known as Turner’s Rebellion, led up to 70 slaves in raids on white families in southeastern Virginia, killing some 57 white people • local militia captured most of the rebels and hung about 20 of the slaves, including Turner

  42. The Rise of Nationalism • economic differences between the North and South would place great strains on the nations unity • Americans began thinking of themselves as belonging to a country under a national government, instead of an association of states under separate governments

  43. Nationalism at Home • three key decisions strengthened the federal government • 1. McCulloch v. Maryland – Congress did not have the authority to charter the bank, supporting the national bank • 2. Dartmouth College v. Woodward – court barred New Hampshire from changing the charter of Dartmouth College, states cannot interfere in such contracts • 3. Gibbons v. Ogden – federal government’s right to regulate commerce on interstate waterways

  44. Nationalism Abroad • Rush-Bagot Agreement – US and Great Britain agreed to reduce the number of warships in the Great Lakes region • and agreed to extend the northern border of the United States westward along 49°N latitude from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains

  45. Monroe Doctrine • 1. the United States would not get involved in the internal affairs of European countries not take sides in wars among them • 2. America recognized the existing colonies and states in the Western Hemisphere and would not interfere with them • 3. America would not permit further colonization of the Western Hemisphere • 4. America would view any attempt by a European power to control any nation in the Western Hemisphere as a hostile action

  46. The Rise of Opposition Parties • The Election of 1824 • House of Representatives voted to decide the election, Henry Clay managed to swing Kentucky’s votes to John Quincy Adams giving him the victory • called a “corrupt bargain” • New Political Parties Emerge • National Republicans and Jeffersonian Democrats • in the next election Jackson trounced JQ Adams

  47. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson • Jackson was the first president from west of the Appalachian Mountains • The Spoils System • for many years, newly elected officials had given government jobs to friends and supporters (patronage) • spoils system – spoils, or loot taken from a conquered enemy, were jobs for party supporters

  48. Limited Government • Jackson used his veto power to restrict federal activity as much as possible, rejecting more acts of Congress than the six previous Presidents combined

  49. The Tariff Crisis • Congress passed a high tariff to discourage foreign imports and encourage American manufacturing • benefited the industrial North but forced southerners to pay higher prices for manufactured goods • called it the “Tariff of Abominations” • South Carolina said that states had the right to judge when the federal government had exceeded its authority and states could nullify or reject, federal laws they judged to be unconstitutional