Ancient Eastern Mediterranean Mr. Stikes
SSWH1 The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE. • Describe the development of Mesopotamian societies; include the religious, cultural, economic, and political facets of society, with attention to Hammurabi’s law code. b. Describe the relationship of religion and political authority in Ancient Egypt. c. Explain the development of monotheism; include the concepts developed by the ancient Hebrews, and Zoroastrianism. d. Describe early trading networks in the Eastern Mediterranean; include the impact Phoenicians had on the Mediterranean World. e. Explain the development and importance of writing; include cuneiform, hieroglyphics, and the Phoenician alphabet.
Goal To analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE
Who? • Egyptians • Babylonians • Sumerians • Akkadians • Hebrews • Persians • Phoenicians
The Eastern Mediterranean Greece IRAQ
3500 BCE – 500 BCE • BCE • Stands for “Before Common Era” • Equivalent to B.C.
Development of Mesopotamian Societies PURPOSE OF SECTION: • Describe the development of Mesopotamian societies; include the religious, cultural, economic, and political facets of society, with attention to Hammurabi’s law code.
Development of Mesopotamian Societies • How did Mesopotamian societies begin develop? • Immigration into the region • Nomads moved south from the Anatolia • Settled in Mesopotamia – “land between the rivers”
Where is Mesopotamia? • Eastern Mediterranean • Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Why Mesopotamia? • Fertile land for agriculture • Easy access to natural resources
“Fertile Crescent” • Mesopotamia is sometimes called the Fertile Crescent • The Fertile Crescent extends to the Mediterranean
Sumerian Civilization • Settled in lower portion of Tigris-Euphrates river valley • Sometimes called: • “birthplace of cities” • “cradle of civilization”
Sumer • By 3000 B.C., at least twelve city-states had been founded by the Sumerians. • Cities were walled • Each worshipped an individual deity • Each had a ziggurat in the center of the city
ZIGGURATS A ziggurat was a temple made of sun-dried bricks and probably decorated with colored tiles. Each was dedicated to a particular deity. Only a priest was allowed at the top of a ziggurat.
Sumerian Religion • Polytheistic • Viewed deities as unpredictable • Religious ceremonies and rituals as a way to keep gods/goddesses happy • Believed in afterlife with no light/air • Important Deities: (and area of responsibility) • An – Seasons, sky • Enlil – Winds and agriculture
Sumerian Government • Sumerian cities were self-governing. • Originally, a council of nobles or an assembly of citizens ran the government. • Eventually, military leaders were selected as kings. • Kingship became hereditary. • A Sumerian king was also the high priest
Unification of Sumer • The Sumerian city-states were first unified by Etana, the king of the city-state of Kish, c. 2800 B.C. • In the aftermath, four major city-states (Kish, Erech, Ur and Lagash) would fight for control of all the Sumerian city-states, causing internal weaknesses.
Sumerian Accomplishments • Technological Advances • Bronze • Wagon wheel • Arch • Metal Plow • Potter’s wheel • Sundial • Number system based on 60 • 12 month calendar based on cycles of moon
Sumerian Accomplishments • In society • First codes of law • First city-states • Epic Poetry (Epic of Gilgamesh) • Written Language (cuneiform)
Epic of Gilgamesh • Epic Poem • Oldest story in the world • c.1850 B.C. • Gilgamesh was a young king of Uruk • Epic follows his search for immortality • Contains a flood story reminiscent of the Noah in the Bible
Writing • Cuneiform dates to c.3100 B.C. • Wedge-shaped markings on wet clay, which was then dried or baked until hard • Began with pictograms, but eventually developed complex symbols
Akkadian Empire • Around 2300 B.C.E., Sargon I assumed power in Akkad, a city north of Sumer • According to legend, Sargon’s mother set him afloat in a reed basket shortly after his birth. He was found and raised by a farmer downstream.
Akkadian Empire • Akkadians were ethnically different from Sumerians. • Akkad – Semitic • The Akkadians adopted the Sumerian religion, but kept their own language • Sargon I built the first empire in the world
Babylon • The next great empire was that of the Babylonians • Hammurabi, the most famous King of Babylon, ruled from c. 1728-1686 B.C.
Hammurabi’s Law Code • Hammurabi is most famous for his law code • Hammurabi created a law code of 282 laws written on 12 tablets • The laws were written in Akkadian, the language of the people
Hammurabi’s Law Code • For each offense, there was a specified punishment • Hammurabi’s laws were rather harsh • Generally were “eye for an eye” • Notable Features: • Innocent until proven guilty • Able to introduce evidence to support you • Divided society into 3 social classes • Rich/Patrician • Landless Freemen • Slaves
Hammurabi’s Law Code • Written on a stele (large monument of stone) and placed in the center of the city • Had picture of a god giving laws to Hammurabi, perhaps signifying that no king is above the law
Conclusion • Religion in Mesopotamia • Economics in Mesopotamia • Culture in Mesopotamia • Politics in Mesopotamia
Conclusion: Religion • Sumerian religion dominated the region • Polytheistic • Sense of hopelessness based on unpredictability
Conclusion: Economics • Sumer was the first civilization to develop widespread, permanent agriculture • Sumer developed the first cities • In Mesopotamia, the economy depended on agriculture.
Conclusion: Economics • Excess food supplies were traded to nearby peoples for metals and other natural resources • The development of cities and empires encouraged trade
Conclusion: Culture • Mesopotamian society was divided: • Top – nobles • Middle – merchants, landless citizens • Bottom – slaves • Writing developed
Conclusion: Politics • Sumer • Developed city-states • Akkadian Empire • Sargon I is first to establish an empire • Code of Hammurabi • Influenced modern law codes • “Eye for an eye” • Concept of innocent until proven guilty • Evidence must be presented to prove guilt
Religion and Politics in Ancient Egypt PURPOSE OF SECTION: • Describe the relationship of religion and political authority in Ancient Egypt
Egypt Basics • Unified first by Narmer (or Menes) • Capital at Memphis • Dynasty – a line of rulers from one family • Theocracy – government headed by religious leaders • Pharaoh – Egyptian king
Egypt Basics • Organized into three periods called kingdoms: • Old Kingdom • Pyramids • Middle Kingdom • Moved capital to Thebes • Defeated by Hyksos • New Kingdom • Ramses the Great • Akhenaton and Tutankhamen
Pyramids • Pyramids were tombs for Pharaohs
Egypt Basics • Writing • Hieroglyphics for official works (usually carved on stone) • Hieratic for daily religious use • Demotic for daily government use • Rosetta Stone • Found by French under Napoleon • Allows us to read hieroglyphics
Egyptian Politics • Pharaoh as sole ruler • Developed bureaucracy to support the central government
Egyptian Religion • Polytheistic • Often represented as part human and part animal • Important deities • Ra – sun god • Osiris – god of the Nile and of all living things • Isis – wife of Osiris
Egyptian Religion • Stresses the importance of the afterlife • Nile flooding was consistent, leading Egyptians to believe that the gods and goddesses were fair and could be persuaded through worship
Relationship Between Religion and Politics • Pharaoh is both king and god • Religion and Politics are intertwined • Disobeying a law from Pharaoh meant disobeying a god
Early Trading Civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean PURPOSE OF SECTION: • Describe early trading networks in the Eastern Mediterranean; include the impact Phoenicians had on the Mediterranean World. • Describe other early civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean
Early Trading Civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean • This section will cover the following trading civilizations: • Hittite • Aramaean • Lydian • Phoenician • Assyrian • Chaldean • Persian • Israelite (Hebrew)