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Evolution of Warfare. Limited Warfare in the Age of Monarchs. Major Carlos Rascon. Learning Objectives. Comprehend and explain the resurrection of mobility and offensive by Marlborough Know and trace the emergence of limited war, international law, and tight professional armies of Kings.

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evolution of warfare
Evolution of Warfare

Limited Warfare in the Age of Monarchs

Major Carlos Rascon

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Comprehend and explain the resurrection of mobility and offensive by Marlborough
  • Know and trace the emergence of limited war, international law, and tight professional armies of Kings
learning objectives cont
Learning Objectives (cont)
  • Know and describe the strategy, tactics, and means of limited warfare
  • Comprehend and explain the emergence of Great Britain as the dominant maritime and colonial power by the end of the 18th century
introduction
Introduction
  • Reaction to 30 Years War
  • Mobility and Offense
  • International Law
introduction cont
Introduction (cont)
  • Limited War
    • Nature of armies
    • Discipline
    • Objectives of Limited War
introduction cont1
Introduction (cont)
  • Conduct of Limited War
    • Strategy
    • Tactics
    • Means
frederick
Frederick
  • 1740-48 War of Austrian Succession
    • Frederick II of Prussia Made demands on Austrian throne (Maria Theresa) that were refused
    • France, Prussia & Spain vs. Austria & England
    • England Provided Money only, & took advantage of French Preoccupation to seize territory in New World & India
frederick cont
Frederick (cont)
  • Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)
    • To counter Prussia’s growing power, Austria, France, Russia and Sweden join forces
    • England (already in colonial & maritime war w/ France) aided by Prussia with money
seven years war cont
Seven Years’ War (cont)
  • Frederick’s position, attitude & strategy:
    • Too many enemies to wait for coordinated attack
    • Advantage of interior lines, move fast and strike hard at one enemy at a time
    • Relied on discipline and training to defeat more numerous enemies
seven years war cont1
Seven Years’ War (cont)
  • Objective: destruction of forces of enemy, not just occupation or defense of territory
  • Military power out of proportion to size/wealth
  • Officer Corps: Junkers/poor nobility, professional, dedicated (Compared to French Nobility)
battle of leuthen dec 1757
Battle of Leuthen (Dec 1757)
  • Austrian Army (80,000) in 5-mile long line
    • Hilly country
    • Right flank on marsh
    • Reserves behind partially entrenched left wing
    • Anticipating Frederick would envelop on left
battle of leuthen cont
Battle of Leuthen (cont)
  • Frederick moved forward with 36,000 troops
    • Hidden by hills
    • Changed direction obliquely to right
    • Left small force for demonstration on Austrian right
battle of leuthen cont1
Battle of Leuthen (cont)
  • Austrian reserves move to support the apparently threatened right flank
  • Frederick attacked Austrian left in two lanes echeloned from right
  • Local superiority (4 to 1) + each battalion added firepower of 7-pound guns
battle of leuthen cont2
Battle of Leuthen (cont)
  • Frederick captured 20,000 prisoners, 115 guns, and killed or wounded 6,800
  • Frederick lost 6,200
frederick1
Frederick
  • “Oblique Order”
    • From of “Manoevre”
    • Parade ground formula for victory
      • Drill was a means to an end, not just tradition
results
Results
  • Politically
  • Militarily
  • Laid foundation for a united Germany
  • Royal Navy
use of artillery
Use of Artillery
  • Pioneered indirect fire with high trajectory of howitzer
  • Cavalry artillery vice horsedrawn artillery
    • Everyone on horse back to keep up with fast moving cavalry
    • Canister, Shell, Grapeshot
emergence of great britain
Emergence of Great Britain
  • Spanish Armada
  • Cardinal Richelieu’s fleet
  • Anglo-Dutch Wars
    • 1647 Britain Victorious
    • “Line ahead”
  • Video 8min Galleons
emergence of great britain cont
Emergence of Great Britain (cont)
  • France defeated at sea
    • War of Spanish Succession
    • Mahan “She was the sea power”
  • Solidification
    • Colonial Empire
    • Seven Years’ War
mas reveries
Mas Reveries
  • Mas Reveries (French development in military thought)
    • Marshall Maurice de Saxe
    • Mas Reveries
    • Ideas
next session learning objectives
Next session Learning Objectives
  • Comprehend and contrast/compare the expressions “strategy of attrition” and “partisan warfare,” and apply them to the American Revolution
  • Know and discuss British and American strategy and objectives, and note how they changed during the course of the American Revolution
learning objectives cont1
Learning Objectives (cont)
  • Comprehend and contrast the Continental Army with the professional armies of the 18th century and show how this difference dictated Washington’s strategy
  • Comprehend and explain how French intervention tipped the balance in favor of America in the War of Independence
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