Warfare • Is war ever morally permissible? • If not, why not? • If so, in what cases is it morally permissible?
How can war be justified? • Three major approaches: • Realism (as applied to warfare) – morality has no place in warfare. Sates aren’t under the same moral constraints as individuals. The questions to ask is how well war serves state interests. • Pacifism – war is never morally permissible. Some argue war does more bad then good. Others argue that killing people is taking away fundamental rights of people, which nobody has a right to do. • Just war theory – war may be ok under certain circumstances.
Just War Theory • Just war theory is concerned with two main issues: • Jus ad bellum – justice of the war • Jus in bello-justice in war • Jus ad Bellum – • 1. The cause must be just • 2. The war must be sanctioned by proper authority. Individuals can’t declare war. • 3. The war should be fought with the right intentions. • 4. Armed conflict should be a last resort. • 5. The good resulting from war must be proportional to the bad. • There must be a reasonable chance of success.
Jus in Bello • Rules of war: • Discrimination. Those fighting a war must distinguish between combatants and non combatants. • Proportionality • No evil means – genocide, anthrax, mass rape, etc. • Benevolent quarantine
Moral Theories • Consequentialist and deontological viewpoints • Is humanitarian intervention ever morally permissible? If not, why not? If so, when is it ok?