MA-20 Evolution of Warfare The Nature of War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

ma 20 evolution of warfare the nature of war n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
MA-20 Evolution of Warfare The Nature of War PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
MA-20 Evolution of Warfare The Nature of War

play fullscreen
1 / 109
MA-20 Evolution of Warfare The Nature of War
334 Views
Download Presentation
hector
Download Presentation

MA-20 Evolution of Warfare The Nature of War

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. MA-20 Evolution of WarfareThe Nature of War Man and War LtCol Mitchell

  2. HOW WE’RE GOING TO EXAMINE THE “EVOLUTION OF WARFARE” • USE MCDP-1 (MARINE CORPS WARFIGHTING DOCTRINE) AS A TOOL TO ANALYSE PAST BATTLES, CAMPAIGNS & WARS • USE INTERNAL & EXTERNAL THREADS OF HISTORICAL CONTINUITY IN WAR AS A MEANS TO ANALYZE EFFECTS ON CONFLICT • USE PRINCIPLES OF WAR

  3. NATURE OF WAR “Everything in war is simple, but the simplest thing is difficult. The difficulties accumulate and end by producing a kind of friction that is inconceivable unless one has experienced war.” — Carl von Clausewitz “In war the chief incalculable is the human will.” — B. H. Liddell Hart “Positions are seldom lost because they have been destroyed, but almost invariably because the leader has decided in his own mind that the position cannot be held.” — A. A. Vandegrift

  4. WAR What is the definition of “WAR” ? • “Open and declared armed hostile conflict between states or nations.” • “Any conflict between rival groups by force of arms or other means,…recognized as a legal conflict.” (Preston and Wise) • “An act of force to compel the enemy to do our will” (Clausewitz)

  5. WAR • Spectrum of conflict • Level of commitment (and destruction) • Driven by policy and culture MOOTW  Total war Limited War 

  6. NATURE of WAR • Friction • Uncertainty • Fluidity • Complexity • Disorder • Human Dimension • FEAR • Physical, mental, moral forces

  7. NATURE of WAR Is War more Art or Science? • ART • Leadership • Courage • Tactics • Enemy analysis • Execution • SCIENCE • Logistics • Troops • Weapons systems • Enemy capabilities • Planning

  8. NATURE OF WAR Origins of war • Group discussions of what constitutes warfare. • War – “A violent clash of interests between or among organized groups characterized by the use of military force.” (MCDP-1) • Warfare – The waging of war against an enemy; armed conflict. Acts undertaken to destroy or undermine the strength of another. • Is warfare a natural state of Man? • Mans evolution that contributed to the conduct of war. • Domestication and Agriculture

  9. HISTORICAL THREADS OF CONTINUITY • ART OF WAR IS EVER-CHANGING • EACH WAR IS DIFFERENT • CHANGE COMES ABOUT IN TWO WAYS • EVOLUTIONARY • REVOLUTIONARY • WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES

  10. HISTORICAL THREADS OF CONTINUITY • MILITARY LEADERS MUST BE STUDENTS OF THE ART AND SCIENCE OF WAR • ADAPT TO CHANGE • ADAPT OR FAIL… • FAILURE TO LET GO OF THE PAST

  11. INTERNAL THREADS • MILITARY PROFESSIONALISM • TACTICS • OPERATIONS • STRATEGY • LOGISTICS & ADMINISTRATION • GENERALSHIP • MILITARY THEORY & DOCTRINE

  12. MILITARY PROFESSIONALISM • WHAT IS A PROFESSION • “An occupation or a calling that requires specialized knowledge of a given field of human activity.” • MILITARY PROFESSIONALISM IS: • “Conduct, aims and qualities of members seeking to create or striving to perfect a profession whose public service is the conduct of war.”

  13. TACTICS • SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES SMALLER UNITS USE TO WIN BATTLES AND ENGAGEMENTS • ENGAGEMENT – Small tactical conflict, usually between maneuver forces • BATTLE – A series of related tactical engagements. Battles last longer than engagements & usually involve larger forces

  14. OPERATIONS • PLANNING AND CONDUCT OF CAMPAIGNS DESIGNED TO DEFEAT AN ENEMY IN A SPECIFIC SPACE AND TIME WITH SIMULTANEOUS AND SEQUENTIAL BATTLES • The Commander projects thoughts forward in both time and space

  15. OPERATIONS • LINK BETWEEN STRATEGY & TACTICS • USE AVAILABLE MILITARY RESOURCES TO ATTAIN OBJECTIVES IN A SPECIFIC THEATER OF WAR

  16. STRATEGY • THE LONG-RANGE PLANS AND POLICIES FOR DISTRIBUTING AND APPLYING RESOURCES TO ACHIEVE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES • ATTAINMENT OF THE POLITICAL OBJECTIVES OF WAR THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF FORCE OR THE THREAT OF FORCE

  17. LOGISTICS & ADMINISTRATION • Logistics is the providing, movement and maintenance of all services and resources necessary to sustain military forces • Administration is the management of all services & resources necessary to sustain military forces

  18. Design Development Acquisition Storage Movement Distribution Maintenance Evacuation & disposal of material Movement, evacuation, & hospitalization of personnel Facilities Civilian Labor Services LOGISTICS

  19. MILITARY THEORY & DOCTRINE • THEORY – The body of ideas that concern war, especially the organization & training for & the conduct of war • Those whose thoughts about war have influenced considerable numbers of soldiers are known as military theorists

  20. MILITARY THEORY & DOCTRINE • DOCTRINE – The authoritative fundamental principles by which military forces guide their actions in support of objectives • Doctrine is generally disseminated through manuals, regulations, circulars, & handbooks that prescribe standardized procedures & organizations

  21. MILITARY THEORY & DOCTRINE • After examination & acceptance by highly experienced professionals, theory becomes doctrine • Sound Judgment • Solutions to every critical situation cannot be found in doctrine

  22. GENERALSHIP • EXERCISING THE QUALITIES & ATTRIBUTES NECESSARY TO COMMAND MAJOR UNITS • Involved in each thread of continuity • Deep understanding of the value of morale and esprit to the profession

  23. NAPOLEON SAID: • “KNOWLEDGE OF THE HIGHER SPHERES OF WAR IS ONLY ACQUIRED THROUGH THE STUDY OF THE WARS & BATTLES OF GREAT CAPTAINS (MEANING: LEADERS OF BATTLES) & BY EXPERIENCE.”

  24. NAPOLEON SAID: • “EVERYTHING DEPENDS UPON THE: • CHARACTER OF THE GENERAL • QUALITIES & FAULTS • NATURE OF THE TROOPS • RANGE OF WEAPONS • SEASON • THOUSAND CIRCUMSTANCES THAT ARE NEVER THE SAME

  25. EXTERNAL THREADS • POLITICAL FACTORS • SOCIAL FACTORS • ECONOMIC FACTORS • TECHNOLOGY

  26. EXTERNAL FACTORS • POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC FACTORS PROVIDE THE FOUNDATIONS OF NATIONAL POWER • TECHNOLOGY OFTEN PROVIDES THE LIMITS TO NATIONAL POWER

  27. POLITICAL FACTORS • IDEAS & ACTIONS OF GOVERNMENTS OR ORGANIZED GROUPS THAT AFFECT THE ACTIVITIES OF WHOLE SOCIETIES

  28. POLITICAL FACTORS • Determine the composition & strength of the military • Establish goals & policies for which wars are fought • Have major influence upon the military profession

  29. POLITICAL FACTORS • Until middle of 19th Century, most heads of state were usually the military commanders as well • Democratic societies of today have political policies quite removed from military capabilities & goals

  30. POLITICAL FACTORS • In Democratic Societies – • Military profession influences legislation & administrative decisions regarding national security • Consequences of military actions on the international balance of power & the behavior of foreign states

  31. SOCIAL FACTORS • POPULAR ATTITUDES • RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS • LEVEL OF EDUCATION • ROLES OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS • PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE • PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS: (DOD) • Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign government, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator's objectives. Also called PSYOP. See also perception management. • MASS MEDIA

  32. SOCIAL FACTORS • MINORITY QUESTIONS • STANDARDS OF MORALITY & JUSTICE • COMBAT PSYCHOLOGY • THE WILL OF A PEOPLE TO RESIST • WHAT SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTED THE FIGHTING OF THE VIETNAM WAR

  33. ECONOMIC FACTORS • PRODUCTION • DISTRIBUTION • CONSUMPTION • THESE ARE THE MATERIAL RESOURCES OF THE STATE • DIFFERENT TYPES OF ECONOMIES AFFECT WARFARE DIFFERENTLY

  34. ECONOMIC FACTORS • ECONOMIC WAR • BOYCOTT • BLOCKADE • PART OF TOTAL WAR, BUT CAN ALSO OCCUR WHEN WAR AS A GENERAL CONDITION DOES NOT EXIST

  35. TECHNOLOGY • TECHNOLOGY IS THE USING OF KNOWLEDGE TO CREATE OR IMPROVE UPON PRACTICAL OBJECTS OR METHODS

  36. TECHNOLOGY • WITHIN THE MILITARY PROFESSION, TECHNOLOGY LEADS TO PROGRESSIVE ADVANCEMENT IN SUCH AREAS AS: • TRANSPORTATION • WEAPONRY • COMMUNICATIONS • CONSTRUCTION • METALLURGY • FOOD PRODUCTION AND MEDICINE

  37. TECHNOLOGY (EXAMPLES) • LASARS • ACCOUSTIC WPNS – MOTION SICKNESS, NAUSEA, DIARRHEA, INTERNAL ORGANS RESONATE • VORTEX WPN – SENDS SHOCK WAVE • ELECTROMAGNETIC WPN – PRODUCES SEIZURE • LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC WPNS – CAUSES BRAIN TO RELEASE CHEMICALS BRINGING ON SLEEP, RELEASE OF HISTAMINES • MICROWAVE WPNS – PAIN, BURNS

  38. TECHNOLOGY • HAS AN INFLUENCE UPON: • STRATEGY • TACTICS • LOGISTICS • MILITARY THEORY AND DOCTRINE • GENERALSHIP

  39. THREADS OF CONTINUITY • OFFER A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK THAT SEEKS TO PROVIDE A MEANS TO RECONSTRUCT AT LEAST THE GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE MILITARY PAST • USE DOCTRINE, “THREADS,” & PRINCIPLES TO EVALUATE WARFARE

  40. THREADS OF CONTINUITY • PATTON “THE PURPOSE OF HISTORY IS TO LEARN HOW HUMAN BEINGS REACT WHEN EXPOSED TO THE DANGER OF WOUNDS OR DEATH, & HOW HIGH RANKING INDIVIDUALS REACT WHEN SUBMITTED TO THE ONEROUS RESPONSIBILITY OF CONDUCTING WAR OR THE PREPARATIONS FOR WAR.”

  41. MASS OBJECTIVE OFFENSIVE SECURITY ECONOMY OF FORCE MANEUVER UNITY OF COMMAND SURPRISE SIMPLICITY PRINCIPLES OF WAR

  42. PRINCIPLES OF WAR • FIELD MARSHALL EARL WARELL • “DON’T TREAT THE SO-CALLED PRINCIPLE OF WAR AS HOLY WRIT, LIKE THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. THEY ARE MERELY COMMON SENSE MAXIMS. MERELY TO MEMORIZE THE MAXIM “CUT YOUR COAT ACCORDING TO YOUR CLOTH” DOES NOT INSTRUCT ONE HOW TO BE A TAILOR.”

  43. MASS CONCENTRATE COMBAT POWER AT THE DECISIVE PLACE AND TIME

  44. MASS: GOOD EXAMPLE • RUSSIAN ARTILLERY • GERMANS FEARED RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE DUE TO MASSED USE OF ARTILLERY AT POINT OF DECISION • FOCUS ARTILLERY REGIMENT/DIVISION ON ONE GRID SQUARE • PHYSICALLY & PSCHOLOGICALLY DISLOCATE YOUR ENEMY

  45. MASS: BAD EXAMPLE • BATTLE OF SOMME, SUMMER OF 1916, WWI • HUGE CONCENTRATION OF ARTILLERY TO BATTER GERMAN DEFENSES OVER 20-MILE FRONT • 1,400 GUNS SPREAD OUT OVER THAT DISTANCE • NOT ENOUGH MASS FOR TRENCH WARFARE • MORE FOCUS & MASS SHOULD HAVE BEEN USED AT POINT OF DECISION, CREATING A GAP IN LINE • 20,000 DEAD • OF THE 120,000 ATTACKING, 57,000 BECAME CASUALTIES

  46. OBJECTIVE Directs military operations toward a defined and attainable objective that contributes to strategic, operational, or tactical aims

  47. OFFENSIVE Dictates that we act rather than react and dictate the time, place, purpose, scope, intensity, and pace of operations. The initiative must be seized, retained, and fully exploited.

  48. OFFENSIVE • ALWAYS PLAN TO REGAIN THE OFFENSIVE, FOR IT’S ONLY ON THE OFFENSIVE WHERE WE HOPE TO IMPOSE OUR WILL • RESORT TO DEFENSE WHEN WEAKNESS COMPELS YOU • EVEN IN THE DEFENSE YOU CAN ASSUME AN OFFENSIVE CHARACTER • THE DECISIVE ELEMENT OF THE DEFENSE IS THE COUNTERATTACK

  49. SECURITY NEVER PERMIT THE ENEMY TO ACQUIRE AN UNEXPECTED ADVANTAGE FLANKS RECONNAISSANCE/INTELLIGENCE REAR AREAS

  50. ECONOMY OF FORCE ALLOCATE MINIMUM ESSENTIAL COMBAT POWER TO SECONDARY EFFORTS OCCUPATION FORCES REAR AREAS