The Union in PerilCh. 10 Sect. 1The Divisive Politics of Slavery United States History I Mr. Pinto
I have, Senators, believed from the first that the agitation of the subject of slavery would, if not prevented by some timely and effective measure, end in disunion. . . . The agitation has been permitted to proceed . . . until it has reached a period when it can no longer be disguised or denied that the Union is in danger. You have thus had forced upon you the greatest and the gravest question that can ever come under your consideration: How can the Union be preserved? What is the agitation of slavery? Does Calhoun believe that the country has taken the proper steps when dealing with the slavery issue? What does Calhoun warn his fellow senators is going to happen?
Differences Between North and South • The North • Small farms • As cities grew, farmers raised only 1 or 2 crops to sell • Bought all other things they needed • Slaves weren’t needed • By 1804, all of the North abolished (ended) slavery • The South • Cotton Gin invented by Eli Whitney • Allowed for cotton to be grown for huge profits • Southerners bought huge farms • Led to increased number of slaves • less than 800,000 in 1790 • Over 4 million by 1860
The Wilmot Proviso • Wilmot Proviso • Penn. Dem. David Wilmot introduced amendment to a military aid bill • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any territory the U.S. gains through war with Mexico • Divides congress along regional lines • North says yes “more free state reps in gov.” • South says no “Constitutional issues” • Slaves are property *The bill does not pass*
Statehood for California • Late 1849, California applied for statehood as free state • Most of it lay south of the Missouri Compromise line. • President Taylor supported its admission • Felt south could best fight abolitionism by allowing states to choose • South saw CA. and Taylor as moving to block slavery and debated secession
The Senate Debates • The southern states begin to threaten secession. • Secession – the formal withdrawal of a state from the union • Angry over • California being a free state • Northern push to make D.C. free • Failure of North to enforce Fugitive Slave Act • Both North and South angry sbout Texas’s claim to part of New Mexico Territory • Henry Clay proposes the Compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850 • California admitted as free state • Utah and N.M. given popular sovereignty • Popular sovereignty – the right of residents of a state to vote on slavery • Texas receives $10 to leave N.M. alone (North happy over chance that N.M. votes to be free, South that Texas debts can be handled) • Sale of slaves banned in D.C., but slavery may continue there • Fugitive Slave Act required Northerners to help find and return slaves to South
The Compromise is Adopted • Senate rejects Compromise in July • Stephen Douglas adopts cause. • Packages parts of Compromise in separate bills • President Fillmore supports compromise • All bills collectively known as Compromise of 1850 pass by September 1850.