Election of 1800 Timeline 1797 XYZ Affair 1798 Alien-Sedition Acts 1799 Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions 1800 Vote is tied with only South Carolina Jefferson and Burr tie 1801 Tie-breaking vote begins in the House Jefferson and Burr elected
Election of 1800 Philadelphia, 1800
Adam’s diplomacy with France • 1799 sends a second mission to France • Impact • splits Federalist party • “High” Federalists follow Hamilton • Adams kicks Hamilton supporters from his cabinet • Moderates follow Adams • spends months writing a personal response to all who congratulate him • unable to direct political party development • begins scheming by Hamilton against Adams.
Campaigning • Origins of a party identity • caucus system • party platforms • Party press becomes more strident • 1800 Newspaper article in the Aurora • the “smear” campaign vs. Jefferson and Adams • Hamilton works to undermine Adams.
Political Issues • Foreign Affairs • economic division - Hamiltonian system • social division - Democracy or aristocracy • division of power - federalism • taxation • war with France led to new taxes on land, houses and slaves • Alien and Sedition vs. VA & KY Resolutions • personalities, Adams vs. Jefferson.
Election Antics • Each party seeks to change state election laws to its benefit • Virginia, Republicans change electoral system to statewide rather than by district to guarantee a majority • Massachusetts, Federalist change from districts to the state legislature which would be solidly Federalist • Election reform occurs for purposes of party - not altruism.
Election of 1800 • Republican victory in New York (differs from 1796) • votes tied at 65 with only South Carolina to vote - Federalists almost certain to win • Vice President candidate, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney is from South Carolina • Charles Pinckney (a cousin) campaigns for Republicans • contested election in Charleston “It is said several Hundred more Voted than paid taxes” • Republicans prevail and capture all eight votes.
Election of 1800 • Electors follow party lines • Jefferson and Aaron Burr tie for President • election is sent to House of Representatives • Federalist controlled House determines new President • vote by state.
Voting in the House • Balloting is determined by party lines • Jefferson 8 votes • Burr 6 votes • Divided states 2 votes • how serious the voting was • Nicholson from Maryland (split with Vermont) is seriously ill, carried to House and retired to bed in another room after the roll call, to stop a vote for Burr • another Maryland congressman is told by wife to vote for Jefferson or he’d be divorced • Tied voting for 35 ballots. Aaron Burr
Voting in the House • Ultimately decision is made with sole Delaware delegate threatening to switch vote from Burr to Jefferson • Federalists from Vermont, Maryland, Delaware and South Carolina submitting blanks “Thus ended the contest, and Mr. Jefferson was constitutionally chosen and declared President. I was one of the last ot yield to his election, because I thought him less fit for the office than the other candidate: [but] because he is President, I shall be one of the last to oppose, thwart, or embarrass his administration.” - Representative Robert Goodloe Harper of South Carolina.
“The Jeffersonian Revolution” • First peaceful transfer of power • Jefferson’s policies are not revolutionary • biggest difference is the makeup of Congress
Long Term Impact • “Midnight” judges • rise of a legitimate opposition • twelfth amendment is passed • emergence of two party system in United States • “modern” politics • triumph of popular, republican politics • sectional interests continue their influence..