Election of 1800 Showed the flaws of the constitution Federalist Run This!!! Democratic-Republicans are taking the Federalist out of the white house and putting them on the streets
Rise of Political Parties • Basic problem: • Quasi War and Napoleonic Wars • which European country do you side with • how to pay for it? • Federalists (still called Federalists ) • were pro British in quasi war • called for taxes to raise army • Passed the Alien and Sedition acts to silence opposition • Anti-Federalists (now called Democratic-Republicans ) • were pro-French • didn’t want a strong govt. to raise taxes • were afraid army would endanger the people’s individual rights • Hated the Alien and Sedition Acts
What was the new name of the Anti-Federalists? • New federalists • Republicans • Democratic-Republicans • Democrats
What was the biggest political issue leading up to the election of 1800? • New political parties • How to deal with the War in Europe • Who to vote for • The Alien and Sedition Acts
Aaron Burr Thomas Jefferson Tie Vs
Alexander Hamilton • Hamilton decides to • support Jefferson • Hamilton does not like Burr Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr Election of 1800 Both winners were Democratic-Republicans
“Revolution” of 1800 • In America we overthrow the government in a legal ‘revolution’ every 4 years – by voting • 1800 was the first successful change of parties • In the election of 1800 Jefferson went up against President Adams and TJ won • However, Aaron Burr ran as his VP but got the same number of votes • So the House of Reps had to break the tie and nearly voted Burr in • Hamilton wrote letters to get the house to vote for TJ and he won • Burr remained VP til next election
What is the Best meaning of the word revolution? • Rebelling against the government • Overthrowing the government • Seeing the cycle of government • Dissenting against the government
How does America have a peaceful ‘revolution’ every four years? • We demonstrate • We protest • We vote • We join the military
Who tied in the election of 1800? • Burr and Hamilton • Hamilton and Adams • Burr and Jefferson • Jefferson and Hamilton
John Adams • Adams is concerned with a new party taking over the executive branch. • He and his federalist administration pushed to pass the Judiciary Act of 1801. • This act created new circuit courts and federal judgeships • Midnight Judges- Last minute federalist appointees to Adam's new courts. Justice John Marshall • Adams Selected John Marshall as Chief Justice of the United States. • Established the principle of Judicial Review - the power of the courts to declare an act of congress unconstitutional. • Judicial Review was first used in the case of Marbury v. Madison.
Jefferson’s Administration • He kept many of the Federalist programs like the National Bank and the debt payment program – both worked • In foreign affairs he tried to keep the United states neutral
What does ‘judicial review’ mean? • Judges get to ‘review’ laws to make sure they are constitutional • Supreme court judges are nominated by the president • The president MUST deliver appointments BEFORE he leaves office • Federal judges get to review appointments
The territory was given to Spain in 1763 as part of the treaty that ended the French & Indian War. • In 1800 Spain ceded the territory to France • What did this mean to the United States? • Closure of the lower Mississippi River • A threat from a new French empire in America Napoleon Bonaparte
The Backstory • Napoleon Bonaparte wanted the territory to rebuild a French empire in North America. • In order to do this he need a navel base in the Caribbean • The island of Saint Dominique – today Haiti
Need to know this for Graduation TEST! • In 1802 the French army tried to take the island of Saint Dominique but were defeated by Pierre Toussaint L’Ouverturea French slave who lead a successful slave revolt against the French army • No island, no navel base
1802 Jefferson sends James Monroe to France with orders to try and buy New Orleans and as much of the area around it as possible. • Told to spend no more than $10 million • With no navel base Napoleon cancels his plans for an American empire and offers to sell all the territory for $15 million!!!!!! • Napoleon needed cash for his wars in Europe James Monroe
James Monroe $ Makes It Rain $ $15 Million Napoleon Bonaparte
The Louisiana Purchase nearly doubled the size of the United States!!! • With its new territory, the US is becoming the big national power of the West.
Why did France give up their idea of having a naval base in the Caribbean ? • Because they were preoccupied in Europe with the Napoleonic Wars • They didn’t have enough money • They needed to make money from the US • Because slaves revolted successfully in Saint Dominique (Haiti)
In 1804 Jefferson sent Meriwether Louis and William Clark to explore • No one was sure of the exact size or what was out there • In three years they traveled more than 3,500 miles and map a large portion of the area. • They make first contact with several Indian tribes and discover many new species of birds & animals
What was the ultimate goal of the Lewis and Clark Expidition? • To discover plants • To discover a water route to Asia • To discover Indian tribes • To discover gold
The War of 1812 You bloody Americans WILL join our war against France! Causes OMG, look at their guns. I’m like soooo impressed right now. • War between France and Great Britain – still…… Napoleonic Wars still going on • Foreign Causes • Great Britain stillmad about US being neutral • They passed Orders in Council • Forbade neutral vessels from trading with France • Prevented US ships from trading with France • Then they attacked US civilian merchant ships and IMPRESSED sailors into British military
Problems with the Natives • Domestic Causes • The Brits wanted the Great Lakes Area in the Northwest Territory • (notice only one state had become official – Brits felt like the rest was up for grabs) • Native Americans violently resisted US settlers attempting to move west. • The British often instigated the natives to attack • Tecumseh (tuh-KUHM-suh) • Rallied other Indian nations not to sell land to the settlers • “Sell a country!? Why not sell the air, the clouds, and the great sea?....Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children?” • The US saw this as an argument to drive the British out of N. Am. • Discouraged by rapid westward expansion Indians want to rebel!! • So, Tecumseh and his tribes joined the British US Brit
Fast Facts of 1812 Ghent, Belgium Guess who DOESN’T come to our aid this time? France…….. • Major battles were in Atlantic Ocean, along Great Lakes, in Washington D.C., and in New Orleans • East coast blockaded • Washington DC burned • Francis Scott Key (a guy) writes the Star Spangled Banner • General Andrew Jackson fights in the Battle of New Orleans • 1814 - Treaty of Ghent – ends the war
Significance of 1812 War • Showed that the US can beat the most powerful country in the world….AGAIN!....and without help • Ensures America is dominant force in Western Hemisphere, NOT EUROPE!
Review Q l According to this political cartoon of the time, over what principle was the 1812 War fought? • Great Lakes area • Free Trade on the Atlantic • Great Britain still standing on American backs • The Louisiana area
Effects of the War • Monroe is elected Pres in 1816 • He takes Spanish Florida by forgiving them $5 million in debt • Then Issues‘Monroe Doctrine’ • Basically says, Hey Europe stay out of our hemisphere, including South America, and we’ll stay out of your biz. • Americans begin to believe in Manifest Destiny • A belief that God made it manifest, or apparent, that it is the United States destiny to control all the land from Atlantic to the Pacific • If He didn’t want us to, He wouldn’t have helped us win against the Brits, twice!!! (Don’t write this part down) • Meanwhile, Napoleon is defeated; nations in Latin America overthrow their colonial empires, Spain, France, Portugal • European countries look at the New World, and realize they no longer control it • They begin to call for their empires back
What is the industrial revolution? When goods began to be made by machines rather than by hand
What was his early life like? Who invented the cotton gin? Eli whitney Son of a wealthy Northern farmer, but married a Southern woman which is why he was obsessed with cotton
What is the cotton gin? A machine that automatically removes the seeds from cotton, rather than it being done by hand
What effect did it have on the Southern Ecomony? More cotton could be made faster and cheaper, thus more profitable
What else did Eli Whitney invent? Interchangeable parts – specifically a musket lock that could be replaced
How did interchangeable parts encourage industrialism in the US? Because individual parts could be made cheaper and faster by machine rather than making a whole product by hand, such as a musket, from start to finish.
The diverse and different economies and cultures between the North and the South What is sectionalism?
How did industrialism create, or lead to , sectionalism? In the North, where industrialization took place, people moved to cities, and their lifestyles and beliefs changed and became very different from Southerners.
Women’sReforms • Ever since Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, wrote: • "nature has distinguished between the female and the slave" – in other words, women are not slaves. “ • AND • “Again, the male is by nature superior, and the female inferior; and the one rules, and the other is ruled". • people believed that men were superior to women • Because Western knowledge and belief systems came from the ancient Greeks, most Europeans believed that women were inferior • Because the Catholic Church preserved Greek and Roman knowledge, AND because the protestant church and Puritans even after they broke away from the Catholic Church followed the same old ideas; only they used the Bible as proof We can’t help it if you’re mentally inferior. But if you question it, we’ll punch yer lights out. Which gender was the first to be weak and sin against god? “"But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God." (I Corinthians 11:3) "For the man is not of the woman; but the woman of the man. Neither was the man created for the woman; but the woman for the man." (I Corinthians 11:8-9
During the mid 1830’s women in America began to argue against these beliefs and organize to protest them • The first and most important was Elizabeth Cady Stanton • Organized a meeting, in 1848, the Seneca Falls Conference, at which women would demanded suffrage, or voting rights "The Bible and the church have been the greatest stumbling blocks in the way of woman's emancipation." --Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Read a Declaration of Sentiments which was similar to the French “Rights of Man document which copied our Declaration of Independence and included references to John Locke, a list of men’s wrongdoings, just like the D of I’s grievances to the king, and a list of women’s rights: • When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied, but one to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel them to such a course. We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. • “He has taken from her all right in property, even to the wages she earns. • He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise. • He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice. • He has denied her the facilities for obtaining a thorough education, all colleges being closed against her. • He has created a false public sentiment by giving to the world a different code of morals for men and women, by which moral delinquencies which exclude women from society, are not only tolerated, but deemed of little account in man. • “Now, in view of this entire disfranchisement of one-half the people of this country, their social and religious degradation--in view of the unjust laws above mentioned, and because women do feel themselves aggrieved, oppressed, and fraudulently deprived of their most sacred rights, we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States.
“Man’s intellectual superiority cannot be a question until woman has had a fair trial.Whenwe shall have had our freedom to find out our own sphere, when we shall have had our colleges, our professions, our trades,for a century, a comparison then may be justly instituted. When woman, instead of being taxed to endow colleges where she is forbidden to enter – instead of forming sewing societies to educate “poor, but pious,” young men, shall first educate herself, when she shall be just to herself before she is generous to others; improving the talents God has given her, and leaving her neighbor to do the same for himself, we shall not hear so much about this boasted superiority “