The Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson won the election of 1800 -Believed the govt. should have less power. Ended many Federalist policies. Judiciary Act of 1801 John Adams appointed as many Federalist Judges as he could.
Remember…. These judges were appointed for life. Jefferson couldn’t change them. • Adams appointed John Marshall as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court • He did this to keep Jefferson and the Democratic Republicans in check. • Marshall helped in strengthening the federal govt.
Marbury vs. Madison William Marbury was appointed by Adams to be a Justice of the Peace . James Madison (Secretary of State) was supposed to give him the job but refused to. Marbury, upset by this, decided to sue. Marbury lost his case but the importance of this case came for what is known as Judicial Review.
Judicial Review The Supreme Court has the final authority in interpreting the Constitution.
A vital issue for many settlers was the use of the Mississippi River. France closed New Orleans to American shipping. Angry westerners called for war against both Spain and France. To settle things, Jefferson offered to buy New Orleans from France.
Louisiana Purchase& Exploration Louisiana Purchase– 1803, The Louisiana Territory was purchased for $15 million – about 3 cents per acre. Doubling the size of the United States. Lewis and Clark - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were the men chosen to explore the Louisiana Territory. Sacagawea – Shoshone woman whose language skills and knowledge of geography helped out Lewis and Clark.
Problems with Foreign Powers The British shut down U.S. shipping Britain sets up blockade France becomes upset and does the same thing If the U.S. obeys the British, the French would seize U.S. ships. If the U.S. obeys the French, the British would seize U.S. ships.
The Embargo Act of 1807 The U.S. would not do business with England or France Election of 1808 James Madison becomes 4th President of the U.S. Native Americans Britain and the Native Americans become allies. They encouraged the Indians to attack American settlers. This angered Westerners.
WarHawks Warhawks: Westerners who called for war with Britain. They wanted Britain to stop helping the Indians, and wanted the British to get out of Canada. June 18, 1812 the U.S. declared war on Britain for the second and final time. This became known as the War of 1812
Reasons for the War: British helping Native Americans. Land. State of the Military: The U.S. military was smaller because of the downsizing of the government by Jefferson. Years of the War: There were two phases of the War. • 1812-1814, when Britain was still fighting with France. • 1814-1815,after Britain defeated the French and focused on America
Francis Scott Key: Wrote the “Star Spangled Banner” (national anthem) during the war of 1812. Battle of New Orleans: American victory, led by Andrew Jackson, which occurred after the war was over Treaty of Ghent: It was a Treaty to end the War of 1812. Results of the War 1. Their was no clear winner. 2. Nothing changed.
Important Consequences of the War 1.Increased patriotism. 2.Ended Native American threat. 3. Increased American manufacturing.
Industrialization Bessemer Steel Process-First low cost method of producing steel Industrial Revolution- Machines began replacing hand tools and manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work. Free Enterprise - An economic system where few restrictions are placed on business activities and ownership. In this system, governments generally have minimal ownership of enterprises in the market place. Factory System-Method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building. **(Factories were in the cities)** **(Cities were in the North)** Many factories were set up near water, (streams or rivers) and used as a source of power.
People started moving from the country into the cities where the factories were. This brought about people working for wages and on a set schedule. Laissez Faire-Economic policy where the government interferes very little in business. Means “Hands-Off” Changes in Manufacturing Interchangeable Parts:Parts that are exactly alike. * It sped up productions * It made repairs easier * Allowed for the use of lower paid, unskilled workers.
Bessemer Steel Process- Robert Fulton-He invented a steamboat that could move against a current or strong wind. This allowed for faster travel and trade. In 1811, the first steamboat traveled down the Mississippi River. Samuel F.B. Morse (1837) Invented the telegraph. This machine sent short and long pulses of electricity along a wire. This would allow somebody to communicate with other people in another city in a few seconds.
Technology Improves Farming: John Deere:Invented the steel plow Eli Whitney – invented a machine for cleaning cotton Cotton Gin – (Short for engine) cleaned much faster than doing it by hand. Example..Worker – 1 pound of cotton per day Cotton Gin – 50 pounds of cotton per day
4 Ways that Cotton changed Southern Life: 1. It started movement west. 2. Most planters would only plant cotton and not other crops 3. Cotton required a large work force, which meant more slavery 4. Price of slaves increased. As Cotton earnings rose, so did the price of slaves. In the late 1700’s, slaves sold for $300. By 1830, they were sold for $1,000.
England was the number one customer of Southern cotton. Price of cotton cloth dropped. Slavery divides the Social Classes Large Plantation owners were the most powerful and wealthiest people in the South. (20 or more slaves for the big plantations) Others wanted to be like the planters. All felt that slave ownership was key to becoming rich.
Nationalism – is a feeling of pride and loyalty toward your country. People felt more loyalty to the nation than to their state. McCulloghvs. Maryland: Strengthens the National Government Supreme Court ruled that Federal law is always above State law. Southern states worried that they might have to give up their slaves some day.
Sectionalism – is loyalty to the interest of your own region or section of the country. South: Slavery and Cotton North: Manufacturing and Trade West: Cheap Land and Transportation