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Rise of Islam

Rise of Islam

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Rise of Islam

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Rise of Islam

  2. Background • Began in Arabia circa 600 CE • Bedouins - Arab nomads, great traders • Mecca- trading crossroads, important city

  3. Arabian Peninsula

  4. Muhammad (570-632 CE) • Orphan- Mecca, good reputation, honest trader • Married at 25 to 40 yr. old wealthy widow • Worried-greed • Spent time praying & reflecting alone • Experienced revelation, or vision from God • voice told Muhammad that he was Allah’s(God’s) prophet, his duty to warn the people about divine judgment

  5. Muhammad • 613 CE, Muhammad began spreading new religion called Islam (surrendering to God) • Followers called Muslims (surrendering ones)

  6. More Muhammad • Wealthy Arabians rejected Muhammad’s teachings (rich should share their wealth w/the poor) • Muslims won support throughout Arabia • Muhammad died in 632 CE after a brief illness

  7. Muslim Beliefs • Sacred Text=The Quran • Written in Arabic • Basic moral values & rules to guide Muslims in everyday life • Five Pillars of Islam • Shahada: Declaration of faith • Salat: prayer 5 times a day facing Mecca • Zakat: charity to sick & poor • Sawm: fasting during Ramadan, the holiest month in the Muslim calendar • Hajj: a pilgrimage to Mecca at least 1 in a Muslims’ life

  8. Spread of Islam • Caliph leader or successor • 680 CE-split in Islam • Issue- who should be the caliph • Sunnite Muslims believed that the caliph was a political leader, not a religious authority • Shi’ite Muslims believed that the caliph should be a relative of Muhammad • Infidels- non-believers

  9. Muslim Accomplishments • Developedthe concept of “0” & algebra • Advanced in medicine: Inb Sina wrote book Canon of Medicine • calligraphy, the art of elegant handwriting • Dome of the Rock, the famous mosque in Jerusalem