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The Rise of Islam

The Rise of Islam

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The Rise of Islam

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  1. The Rise of Islam Summer School 2011

  2. Muhammad • Born into powerful Meccan Family • Became Business manager for Khadijah, a wealthy business woman whom he would later marry. • About age 40 (610) while meditating in a cave outside Mecca, the voice of the Angel Gabriel came to him and gave him Gods word. • He was convinced he was the last prophet. • 613 he begins to preach around Mecca

  3. Islam Basics • The Five Pillars • Faith – There is only one God, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet. • Prayer – Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca • Alms – Support those less fortunate through special religious tax • Fasting – During holy month of Ramadan, fast between dawn and sunset. • Pilgrimage – The Hajj or Pilgrimage to Mecca must be performed at least once in their lifetime.

  4. Islam Basics • Islam is name of religion • A Muslim is one who follows Islam • The Qur’an is holy book of Islam containing the revelations given to Muhammad by God • Umma – Muslim religious community • Ulama – Scholar class of Islam who study Qur’an

  5. Links to Judaism and Christianity • They all worship the same god! • Differences • Muslims Believe Jesus was a prophet, not son of God • Muslims believe Muhammad was a prophet same as Abraham and Moses • The Qur’an perfects the earlier revelations and is Gods final word. • Muslim holy law or Shari’a requires Muslim leaders to extend tolerance to Christians and Jews because they are “people of the book”

  6. Muhammad’s Death 632 • Muhammad chased out of Mecca in 620 to Medina. There he finds many who will follow him and becomes great leader. • 630 he returns to Mecca with great Army and city surrenders. City converts to Islam and most of the Arabian peninsula by the time of his death in 632. • The tribes of the Arabian peninsula are united for the first time ever under than banner of Islam.

  7. Spread of Islam • The four “Great Caliphs” • Abu-Bakr – All of Arabia by 634 • Umar – Syria and Lower Egypt • Uthman and Ali – All of Middle East by 661 • 750 Islamic Umayyad Empire from India to Spain and North Africa

  8. Islamic Split • After the death of Ali who was the son and cousin to Muhammad, differences arose over who should lead Islam. • Some believed following the Umayyad’s was the way. Others believed only the blood of Muhammad should lead. • Those following the descendents of Ali and Muhammad become the Shi’a. Those who follow Umayyad’s become known as Sunni.

  9. Umayyad and Abbasid Empires • Umayyad – Assassinates Ali in 661. • Move capital to Damascus, Syria • Made easier to control territories • Rebelling groups overthrow Umayyad in 750. • Abbasids 750-1258 • Move capital to new city of Baghdad • Baghdad sits on vital trade routes making the Abbasids very rich and powerful • Due to size of Empire, Individual Islamic States begin to emerge reducing the power and influence of the Abbasids and they lose control by 1258

  10. Muslim Culture • Advances in Science • Math and Astronomy needed to correctly calculate the proper times for prayer. Also deep curiosity about the world and Muhammad encouraged learning. • Collecting knowledge • House of Wisdom – Baghdad • Scholars from different cultures and beliefs translated texts from Greece, India, Persia, and elsewhere into Arabic

  11. Muslim Culture Cont. • Mathematics • Muslim scholars believed that math was basis for all knowledge. • Al-Khwarizmi – Mathematician Writes a textbook called “The Art of Bringing Together Unknowns to Match a Known Quantity” • Technique was called “al-jabr” • Scientific Method • Muslims did not use greek methods of science based in Logic. The favored a new method based in observation and experimentation.

  12. Assignment • Questions: • p. 268 # 1-7 • p. 272 # 1, 3-8 • p. 279 # 1, 3-8

  13. The Rise of the Ottoman’s Summer School 2011

  14. After the Abbasid Empire • Muslim for individual Muslim kingdoms throughout the old Abbasid Empire. • Fatimids - N.Africa • Moors – Spain • Safavids – Persia • Turks – Anatolia • Located present day southwestern Turkey • Military Society • Leader – Osman • West called him Othman and his followers Ottomans

  15. Anatolia United • Osman Unites Anatolia into a small Islamic state by 1300. • Military success based on Gunpowder • Son Orkhan, names himself Sultan or “One with Power” • Treated those they conquered with respect. • All Muslims needed to serve in Army • Non-Muslims needed to pay tax

  16. Mehmed II • Mehmed II finally conquers surrounded Byzantine capital of Constantinople in 1453. • Ottomans had been trying to take the city for over 150 years. • Mehmed was tolerant of other religions and opened the city for all . Rename city Istanbul.

  17. Selim and Suleyman • Selim - Mehmed’s Grandson • Conquers Safavids 1514 and moves south into Palestine, Syria, and N. Africa. • Takes control of Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina • Suleyman – Son of Selim • Moves Army’s into Europe • Pushes as far as Vienna Austria • Europeans finally defeat him 1526. • High Point of Ottoman Empire

  18. Ottoman Decline • Ottomans hold power till WWI but were in great decline for over 300 years. • Many lines of incompetent Sultans allow for poor management of huge empire • Also it became custom for Sultan to have his brothers strangled to prevent a struggle for power in the empire.

  19. Assignment • Questions: • P.511 # 2-8 • P.515 # 2-8

  20. The Creation of Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict World Studies Summer School 2010

  21. Zionism • Zionism is the belief that the Jewish people should return to their rightful home in Palestine. • Zionism movement grows between late 1800s and early 1900s • Before WWI, Palestine was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. • After Ottoman defeat, British were mandated to control Palestine as part of the Treaty of Versailles

  22. History • Jews driven out of Palestine around A.D. 135 • Arab Muslims had controlled Palestine, with some exceptions, for the last 1200 years. • By early 1900s, Zionists begin buying land from Ottomans who need money to finance their large empire

  23. British Mandate • British begin to be pressured for Jewish State. • Arabs oppose growing Jewish presence. • WWII Holocaust brings Jewish cause to center stage. And sympathy for Jewish state grows, especially from America. • 1920s-1940s Jewish land purchases increase from absentee Arab landowners even though British have outlawed such purchases. • Jewish Organizing for state continues and violence against British and Arabs escalates

  24. United Nations and Partition • With support of U.S. and others, Newly formed U.N. tackles issue of Palestine. • U.N. votes for partition of Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state with Jerusalem to be an international city owned by neither. • Jews make up 34% of population but receive 55 percent of area. • Arabs countries universally reject plan

  25. State of Israel • May 14th, 1948 David Ben Gurion proclaims Independent State of Israel. • May 15th 6 Arab countries attack Israel • First Arab-Israeli War 1948 • Israel wins and seizes half the land given for Arab state during war. • Land set aside for Arab State never happens. • Some Arab nations grab land for themselves. • Especially Jordan-the West Bank, Egypt-Gaza Strip

  26. 1956 Suez Crisis • Second Arab-Israeli War • Egypt seizes control of the Suez Canal • Had been controlled by British • British get Israel with the support of French Air Force to retake canal. • They quickly defeat the Egyptians and take canal. • With pressure from Soviet Union and U.S., British, French and Israeli’s withdraw from Egypt leaving the canal in Egypt’s control ending the crisis.

  27. PLO Created • 1964 – Palestinian Liberation Organization formed. To Liberate Palestine from Israel • Leader is Yasir Arafat • Depending on your point of view PLO is: • Terrorist group trying to destroy Israel • Humanitarian group trying to help Palestinians being oppressed by Israel. • Group in actuality does BOTH!

  28. 1967 Six-Day War • Tensions had been building between Arab Countries and Israel for some time. • With Arab countries preparing an attack Israel launches surprise attack destroying air forces in Jordan, Syria, Iran, and Egypt. • Israeli Army then moves quickly conquering Arab forces on three different fronts

  29. 1967 Six-Day War - Results • Israel takes control of West Bank • Most importantly – The Old City of Jerusalem • Israel takes Sinai peninsula from Egypt • Israel takes Golan Heights • Palestinians living in Jerusalem were given choice of Israeli Citizenship or Jordanian. Most chose Jordan.

  30. Yom Kippur War • October 1973 • Egyptian President Sadat plans joint Arab attack on Jewish Holy Day of Yom Kippur • Israeli’s caught by surprise and take great casualties as well as lose some of territory captured during 1967 war. • Israel counter-attacks and regains most of lost territory. • Both side agree to a truce after several weeks of fighting.

  31. First Efforts of Peace • November 1977 Anwar Sadat Stuns the world by extending a hand to Israel. • He goes before Israeli Parliament and asks for Israel to join him in peace. • 1979 – Camp David Accords (Facilitated by Carter) • Egypt Recognizes Israel’s right to exist. • Israel in turn returns the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt

  32. Ramifications • Egypt becomes first Arab country to recognize Israel. • World leaders praise Sadat. • Other Arab countries condemn Sadat • 1981 Muslim extremists assassinate Sadat • New President Mubarak pledges to maintain peace with Israel

  33. Fighting between Israel and PLO intensify • Palestinians attack Israel-Israel bombs PLO camps • PLO begins hiding in Southern Lebanon • Israel invades southern Lebanon and get involved with the Lebanon Civil War • Israel eventually with draws

  34. Intifada 1987-1992 • Campaign of civil disobedience or uprising by Palestinians against Israel • Boycotts, demonstrations, attacks on soldiers, rock throwing by teenagers • Intifada accomplishes little. Does effect world opinion though, putting pressure on Israel to open peace talks with Palestinians

  35. Oslo Peace Accords 1993 • Israel grants Palestinians partial self rule in Gaza and West Bank. • Creation of Palestinian Authority • PA must recognize Israel right to exist • Further Steps to be taken to increase PA rule in future. • Israeli Prime Minister Assassinated by Jewish extremist 1995

  36. 1995-2001 • Further expansion of the agreements at Oslo never happen. • Both sides never fully cooperate with decisions made. • Attacks by Palestinians continue and escalate. • Peace process moves backward.

  37. Assignment • Questions • P. 1023 # 1, 3-8