Rise of Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Rise of Islam

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  1. Rise of Islam

  2. Islam Today • Developed after Christianity • 1/5 of the world population are Muslims • Millions go to the holy city of Mecca to pray • Arabic is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world

  3. TODAY • Most Muslims today are Sunni (90%) • Most Shiites live in Iran, Lebanon, Iraq and Yemen • Most Shiites have split into different groups

  4. Way of Life • No pork • No alcohol • Friday afternoon worship • No religious authority • Worship Allah

  5. Emerged from Arabian Peninsula • Desert areas, farming only good on the oasis (fertile areas watered by natural well or spring) • One oasis town – Mecca • Good marketplace • Good trading routes

  6. Muhammad • Born in Mecca ( a trading city ) about 570 • About 40 years old went to meditate • Heard the voice of the angel Gabriel, messenger of God calling to him • Wife encouraged Muhammad to accept the “call” • Birth of Islam meaning “submission” • “Allah” translates to god

  7. Turning Point • At first a few people listened to Muhammad • Some feared teachings disrupted trading in the city • Threaten to be murdered Muhammad went on a hijra (journey)

  8. Text • Quran • States that people are responsible for their own actions • Everyone will stand before God on judgment day • Rules on how to live life

  9. 5 Pillars • 1. Declaration of Faith – “no god but God” • MONOTHESTIC • 2. Daily Prayer – Face Mecca, 5x • 3. Give to Charity – Education or Social Services • 4. Fast – Sunrise to Sunset during Ramadan • 5. Hajj – Journey to Mecca

  10. Islam and Women • Made more equal to a man • Education • Marriage and right to property • Daughters protected from death

  11. Spread of Islam • Remember the Battle of Tours 732 • Martel stopped advance into Western Europe • Weakened Byzantine Empire; Islam spread quickly along Middle East and North Africa • Conquering lands • Non Muslims taxed but allowed to practice own religions • Many converted due to simple message

  12. Remember the Crusades • Muslims led by Saladin • Fighting over the holy land Jerusalem • As territories spread divisions occurred

  13. Sunni Wanted to choose their leader Felt they should follow Muhammad’s example Believe that the Shiite destroyed the meaning of the Quran Shiite Felt their leader should be direct decedents from Muhammad Do not recognize authority of the Sunni Claimed the Sunni destroyed the meaning of the Quran Grew to admire martyrdom as a demonstration of their faith Divisions within Islam

  14. Sunni Later a part of Ottoman Empire Eastern Europe to Middle East to North Africa Shiite Later a part of the Safavid Empire Iran Territory New Military Technology Created New Empires

  15. Both Belief in one true God Quran Hajj to Mecca

  16. Muslim Society • Social Mobility – able to move in social classes • Not available during feudalism • Muslims not slaves, converted children free • TRADING • Africa, China, India, Egypt, Europe, Russia • “luxury goods” • Use of Checks

  17. Golden Age of Muslim Culture • 830 “House of Wisdom” set up in Baghdad – greatest center of Muslim learning

  18. Art & Literature • No religious art (no icons) • Architects adapted domes and arches from Byzantine • Large mosque (Muslim place of worship) Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem

  19. Translated all works into Arabic • Put all knowledge to the test of reason • Except Quran • Aristotle

  20. Muslims and Medicine • Test before could practice • Built hospitals • Advances • Cataracts • Tasteful syrups in Rx • PDR

  21. Muslims on the Move • Enter Europe through Sicily and Spain • Crusades • India

  22. Hindus in India • Defeated Hindu armies • Sultan (Muslim ruler) made Delhi his capital • Many lower caste members converted to Islam? • No slavery • Move upward in social system • Prevented their death

  23. Caste System

  24. -REVIEW- Hindu Evolved over thousands of years polytheistic Icons Many sacred texts (Vedas) Muslim “newer religion” monotheistic NO icons One sacred text (Quran) Rejected Caste system Differences

  25. Muslims territory to the north • Hindu to the south

  26. Built by the Muslim emperor Shah Jahan as a grave to his wife. • Died after giving birth to their 14th child • Took 22 years to build • White marble changes color as light reflects off of it from the sun and moon

  27. With Muslim expansion and new territories gained, nations in the west will soon challenge its power!!!!