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Rise of Islam

Rise of Islam

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Rise of Islam

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  1. Rise of Islam

  2. The Middle East

  3. Themes in Islamic History • Islam as Religion • Islam as State & Empire • Islam as Civilization

  4. Arabia

  5. Islam After Muhammad • At death Muhammad in 632 he left no son to succeed him • Daughter Fatima • Split between Shiites and Sunnis • Great argument over succession • Shiites – Only descendants of Fatima or her husband Ali should succeed Mohammed • Death of Husain (son of Ali) most celebrated event in Shiite calendar • Sunnis – any follower of Islam should be eligible to lead • Division political & religious • Never settled to this day • Series of Caliphs governed the Islamic State

  6. Struggle for Succession Number of conflicting parties sought to succeed Muhammad • Companions – belonged to Muhammad’s tribe or had accepted mission early • Legitimists – heir must belong to family of Muhammad • Ali paternal cousin, husband of daughter Fatima & one of first believers • Aristocracy of Quraysh – Umayyads • Held reigns of power & wealth in pre-Islamic days • Companions triumphed with selection of abu-Bakr

  7. Struggle for Succession Rashidun - Four “righteous” caliphs (632-661 AD) • All were close associates and relatives of Muhammad • Abu Bakr (632-634) Father-in-law of Muhammad and one of first believers • Umar (634-644) main military genius who carried Islam forward from the Arabian peninsula • Uthman (644-656) - empire fell into a civil war called the Fitna • In 656 Uthman is assassinated by followers of Ali • Ali  (656-661) Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin • Many refused to accept Ali as a leader • Killed by assassin Umayyad dynasty claims the caliphate – Damascus capital Abbasid dynasty – 754 – seizes caliphate • al Mansur (754-775) builds new capital at Baghdad

  8. Conquest & Expansion Expansion of Islamic empire against Byzantine & Sassanid (Persian) empires Abu-Bakr –Orders jihad (holy struggle) against the "infidel" Christian or Byzantine Empire north of Arabia • Damascus becomes capital Umar • 637 – Defeated great Persian Sassanid army • 639 – Conquers Alexandria – base of Byzantine navy • 643 – Arabs to border of India Tariq ibn Zaid crossed from North Africa (Morocco) into Spain in 711 Expansion stopped in France in 732 – Charles Martel (Battle of Tours)

  9. The Spread of Islam

  10. Medieval Baghdad

  11. Medieval Baghdad 762 - Abbasid dynasty moved the capital of Islamic empire to the newly-founded city of Baghdad • Caliph Al-Mansur founded • Banks of the Tigris River • Known as the “Round City” • Foreign influences – Persian, Syrian & Hellenistic Baghdad capital of "Golden Age" of Islamic civilization • Magnificent architectural achievement • Muslim scholars - important contributions in the sciences, humanities, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, and literature • Became city of museums, hospitals, libraries • World's richest & most intellectual city of the time • Believed to be largest city in the world from 775 to 935 - possibly over 1,000,000 Baghdad was destroyed by the Mongols in 1258 • Ended era of the Abbasids

  12. Medieval Baghdad Bayt al-Hikmah (the House of Wisdom) • World famous center of learning • Attracted scholars from all over the world • Library, academy and translation bureau • Translate Greek works of Aristotle, Plato, Galen, Hippocrates, Euclid, and Pythagoras • Translate Persian, Sanskrit, Syriac into Arabic • Al-Khawarizmi, the "father" of algebra  Merchants played a major role in the city • From Persia, China, India, Africa & Europe • Sinbad the Sailor recounts actual voyages made by Muslim merchants Caliphal palace known as the Golden Gate or the Green Dome • Dome of audience chamber rose to 130 feet

  13. Harun al-Rashid Abbasid caliph (r.786-809) Baghdad a city of immense wealth and international significance under al-Rashid • Tribute paid by many rulers to the caliph • Used on architecture, arts & luxurious life at court Great patron of arts & sciences • Encouragement of learning, art, poetry, music • A scholar and poet himself • Invited many scholars to the kingdom • Founded first Muslim hospital Built Green Dome palace in Baghdad Fabulous court inspired the book One Thousand and One Nights • Displays of extravagant wealth • Entertainers flocked to his court: poets, wits, musicians, singers, and dancers Diplomatic relations with Charlemagne

  14. Islamic Spain • Influence on Medieval European civilization • Ummayyad Caliph • In Spain from 711 to 1492 Cordoba • Center of culture that rivaled Baghdad • Libraries, palaces, street lights, running water • Cultural center of Medieval Europe • Mosque – early vaulting like later Gothic cathedrals

  15. Creation of Islamic Civilization • Islamic civilization developed slowly • Centuries before majority of people in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia accepted Islam • People generally converted from self interest • Escape taxes & seek identification with ruling class • Combination of cultural influences • Arabs assimilated, adapted & reproduced the intellectual & cultural heritage of those they conquered • Arabs adopted best art, architecture, philosophy, medicine, science, literature, and government mainly from Hellenized Aramaic & Persian civilizations • Arab contribution was mainly in language and religion • Final culmination of Semitic civilization which started in the Fertile Crescent developed by Assyro-Babylonians, Phoenicians, Aramaeans and Hebrews

  16. Islamic Unity • Arabic became language of business, government & literature • Uniform enforcement of law contributed to growth of united culture • Vast trade network extended from India to the Mediterranean

  17. Rich Cultural Achievements • Scholarship • Produced notable scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctors and philosophers • Importance of reading the Qur'an produced a comparatively high level of literacy in the general populace • Heirs to Hellenistic Learning • Maintained Classical learning • Translation of Greek texts - Aristotle • Medicine • Architecture • Mosques, Palaces & Minarets • Art • Geometric patterns, calligraphy, metal work

  18. Science & Medicine Muslim scientists • Saw no contradiction between religion and laws governing natural world • Scientific method born • Utilized Classical Greek medical texts • Alchemy – beginnings of chemistry Muslim medicine • Advanced techniques & ideas • Theory that disease born through air born organisms • Study of anatomy • Vascular & cancer surgery • Study of light, lenses & physiology of eye – led to camera • Use of anesthetics • Pharmacies • Hospitals – separate disease in different wards

  19. Pioneers of Medicine Ibn Sina (980 – 1037) – Known as Avicenna • Contributions in philosophy, music, mathematics, geography & literature • Utilized experimentation & observation • wrote Canon of Medicine– encyclopedia of medicine • Study of infectious disease • Main medical text for 6 centuries • Printed extensively throughout the West

  20. Mathematics • Introduced “Arabic” numerals – originally from India • Replaced Roman numerals • Included the zero – made for complex calculations • Perfected use of decimals and fractions • Invented Algebra

  21. One Thousand and One Nights Classic of world literature Stories were created over many centuries, by many people and in many styles Originally Arabian, Persian, & Indian folk tales • Collected during time of al-Rashid Best known stories: • Ali Baba, Sinbad the Sailor, and Aladdin • al-Rashid’s court frequent setting Frame story: • Efforts of Scheherezadeto keep her husband, King Shahryar from killing her by entertaining him with a tale a night for 1,001 nights • Always a cliff hanger British translator – Richard Burton

  22. Architecture