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The Rise of Islam PowerPoint Presentation
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The Rise of Islam

The Rise of Islam

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The Rise of Islam

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  1. The Rise of Islam

  2. First of all… • The religion is Islam • Followers of the religion are called Muslims • The youngest of the three major monotheistic religions • Began in the Arabian Peninsula

  3. Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes • Arabian Peninsula is crossroads of three continents: Africa, Europe, Asia • Very little fertile land; most is desert • Bedouins (Arab nomads) organized into tribes (clans) • Fertile area and oases were settled by Arabs in the early 600s • Trade routes connected Arabia to major ocean and land trade routes • Trade routes also carried information and ideas from areas outside of Arabia

  4. Arabian Peninsula Today

  5. Mecca • City in western Arabia • People came to worship at a shrine called the Ka’aba, where 360 idols were worshipped • Many Jews and Christians lived on the Arabian Peninsula, so monotheism, the concept of one God (Allah, in Arabic), was known

  6. Muhammad, Prophet of Islam • Around 610, while he is meditating, Muhammad believes the angel Gabriel tells him that he is a messenger, or prophet, of Allah • Muhammad begins teaching that Allah is the one and only God and that all other gods must be abandoned • Religion is Islam meaning “submission to the will of Allah” • People who followed Muhammad were called Muslims, “one who has submitted”

  7. The Hijrah • Muhammad begins preaching publicly in Mecca • Many Meccans don’t like his message, fearing that if people abandon the traditional Arab gods, Mecca will no longer be a pilgrimage center • 622, Muhammad and his followers leave Mecca and move to Yathrib; journey is known as the Hijrah • Islam attracts many more followers • Yathrib renamed Medina

  8. Return to Mecca • In Medina, Muhammad joins his group with Arabs and Jews as one community • Becomes both a political and religious leaders • Attracts more converts • Becomes a military leader and in 630, leads 10,000 followers back to Mecca • Destroys the idols in the Ka’aba and rededicates it to Allah • Becomes the holiest site in Islam • Muhammad dies two years later

  9. Beliefs and Practices of Islam • Main teaching – there is only one God, Allah • There is good and evil and each person is responsible for the actions of his or her life • All Muslims must carry out five duties, known as the Five Pillars of Islam

  10. The Five Pillars of Islam • Faith – “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet” • Prayer – pray 5 times a day, facing Mecca (either in a mosque, the Islamic house of worship, or wherever you are) • Alms – give money to the poor • Fasting – fast from sunup to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan, commemorating when Allah revealed the Qu’ran to Muhammad • Pilgrimage – perform the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once

  11. A Way of Life • Muslims do not eat pork or drink alcohol • Friday is the day of worship • No priests or religious authorities; Muslims worship Allah directly • Imams lead worship

  12. Sources of Authority • Allah expressed his will through Gabriel who revealed it to Muhammad • Revelation were collected in a holy book called the Qur'an • Written in Arabic, considered the only true version • Arabic helped united conquered people as Islam spread • The Sunna, or Muhammad’s example, is the best model for living • Body of law, Shari’a, regulates family life, moral conduct, and business and community life

  13. Links to Judaism and Christianity • Allah is the same God worshipped by Jews and Christians • Muslims view Jesus as a prophet, not the son of God • Muhammad believed to be the final prophet • All three religions believe in heaven and hell and a day of judgment • Muslims trace their ancestry to Abraham, as do Jews and Christians • All are considered “people of the book” • Shari’a requires religious tolerance to Christians and Jews