Mohammed: The Prophet • Founded Islam • Born 570 A.D. • While meditating had vision – Angel Gabriel commanded him to unite tribes of Arab Peninsula and convert them to follow a single god • God’s name was Allah • Same god worshiped by Jews & Christians
Mohammed: The Prophet • After vision he began to preach belief in Allah • Afraid for his life, Mohammed flees Mecca to Medina in 622 A.D. • Called Hegira • Marks beginning of Muslim calendar • Becomes religious leader • Raises army to retake Mecca in a jihad
Mohammed: The Prophet • 630 A.D. – Mohammed and his army retake Mecca • 632 A.D. – Mohammed becomes ill and dies • At the time of his death almost all of the Arabian Tribes had come together, and they had also converted to Islam
The Quran • Sacred text of Islam (Like the Bible) • Reveals words that Allah spoke to Mohammed • Mohammed memorized these words and taught them to his followers • Scribes wrote these words in the Quran
The Quran • Contains many references to Jews and Christians • Topics covered: Forms of Worship, Proper Conduct, Treatment of Women, and many others • Fundamental Doctrine: “There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet.”
The Five Pillars of Islam • Basic religious duties all Muslims must fulfill • Similar to Ten Commandments & Hammurabi’s Code • The Five Pillars: • Confession of Faith – Muslims must affirm: “There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet.” • Prayer – Muslims must pray five times a day, while facing east towards Mecca.
The Five Pillars of Islam • Charity – Muslims must give money to the poor and pay taxes to the mosque. • Fasting – During the month of Ramadan, Muslims cannot eat, or drink during daylight hours. • Pilgrimage – If physically able, a Muslim must make a pilgrimage to Mecca.