Arabs • Arabian Peninsula • Nomads • Tribes ruled by Sheikh • Domestication of the camel. • Major carrier of goods between the Indian Ocean and the end of the Silk Road.
Muhammad • Worried about the growing gap between the simple, honest, generosity of most Makkans and the greediness of the rich trading elites.
Muhammad’s Revelation • Muslims believe that Muhammad received revelations from god through the angel Gabriel • Revelations were written in the Quran.
Muhammad the Prophet • Muslims believe that the word of Allah was partially revealed through Moses (Judaism), and Jesus (Christianity). • Allah is the only god and Muhammad is his prophet. • Final revelation of Allah was given to Muhammad.
Teachings of Muhammad • Monotheistic • Allah is the all-powerful creator. • Salvation can be attained by those who subject themselves to the will of Allah. • Muhammad is not considered divine. • To do Allah’s will, one must follow an ethical code known as the 5 Pillars of Faith.
Quran • Book of teachings given to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel. • Written in Arabic and Arabs discourage its translation • Jihad (holy war): Teachings from the Quran that encourage fighting to defend or spread the faith Islam.
Koran One should make formal ablutions religious cleansing) before handling the Qur'an or reading from its text.
Koran One who is in need of a formal bath (after intercourse or menstrual bleeding) should not touch the Qur'an until after bathing.
Koran A non-Muslim should not handle the sacred text, but may listen to tapes of the Qur'an or handle a translation or exegesis.
Koran • Those who are unable to handle the Qur'an based on these reasons should either avoid handling the Qur'an completely, or in necessity hold it while using some sort of barrier covering the hand, such as a cloth or a glove.
5 Pillars of Faith • Believe in Allah and Muhammad as his prophet • Prayer 5 times a day, with public prayer on Friday. • Giving alms to the poor • Observe the holy month of Ramadan • Make a pilgrimage to Makkah.
Ramadan • Based on the Islamic Lunar calendar. • First meal of the day must be finished by sunrise. • Eating, drinking, smoking and sexual intercourse are not allowed between dawn and sunset.
Islam • More of a way of life, than a set of beliefs. • Shari’ah, provides guidelines for everyday life.
Shari’ah • Guideline for everyday life • Honesty • Justice • Cannot gamble • No pork • No alcohol.
Kabba • Kabba is the destination of Muslims making their pilgrimage to Makkah
Islam after Muhammad • Muhammad left no successor. • After Muhammad their were many disputes over who should be Muhammad’s successor. • Also disputes over interpretation of the Koran. • Two groups formed: Sunnis, Shiites.
Arab Empire • Caliph: Successor to Muhammad. • Abu Bakr was named caliph. • Muslims slowly expanded over Arabia and beyond. • Muslims would raid neighbors. • This raid was called “struggle in the way of of god” by the Quran.
Arab Empire • By 650 the Arabs had conquered the entire Persian Empire. • Courage of Arab soldiers was enhanced by the belief that Muslim warriors were assured a place in paradise if they died in battle.
The Umayyads • General Mu’awiyah became caliph • He used force only when necessary. • General Mu’awiyah made the office of caliph hereditary. • Battle of Tours in 732, ended the expansion of the Arab Empire.
Abbasid Dynasty • Built a new capital city at Baghdad. • Conquered many of the richest Roman provinces. • Translation of many Greek works. • Establishment of a great Bureaucracy.
Decline and division of Abbasid Dynasty • Fighting over the succession of the caliph • Vast wealth lead to financial corruption. • Rulers of the provinces began to break away from the central authority. • Established independent dynasties.
Crusades • Byzantine emporer Alexius I asked the Christian states of Europe for help against the Turks. • Christian states and Islamic world feared and disliked each other. • Europeans agreed, beginning the Crusades in 1096.
Crusades • Early on the Crusaders were able to conquer many areas that were established as the crusader states. • Saladin was a new Muslim ruler who took control of Egypt and took the offensive against Christian troops. • Saladin did not allow a massacre of people and he even allowed Christian religious services to continue.
Mongols • Pastoral nomads • Destructive, burned buildings to ground • Lead by Genghis Khan. • Strong hatred of Islam. • Destroyed Muslim: houses, schools, Mosques.
Mongols • Over time Mongol rulers converted to Islam. • Destruction of Baghdad caused the new Islamic center became Cairo Egypt.
Prosperity • Islamic prosperity was a result of trade with China, India, and the Byzantine Empire. • Trade by ship and camel caravan.
Trade • South of the Sahara came gold and slaves • China: Silk and Porcelain. • East Africa: Gold and Ivory • India: Sandalwood (spices, incense), spices, textiles. • Development of banking and use of coins.
Cities • Baghdad known as the city of peace. • Cairo: Great temples, filled with admirable and stately places. • Bazaar: covered market where goods of every Muslim city or town. • Inspectors made sure that all goods at the bazaar were clean and fresh.
Women • Women were “equal” to men. • Men could have up to four wives. • Men had to pay a dowry to each wife, so most could not afford more than one.
Women • The custom of women covering their entire body in public was common in the cities. • This custom is more of an Arab principal than it is from the Koran.
Preservation of Knowledge • The Arab empire made translations of Aristotle, and Plato. • These were stored in a library called the House of Wisdom. • Mathmatics text were brought from India and studied. • Europeans recovered these works because the Arabs preserved them.
Philosophy, Science, History • Created Algebra • Astronomy: named many of the stars. • Astrolobe: used by sailors to determine their location based on the stars.
Literature • Arabian Nights: A collection of folktales, fables, and romances that blend the natural with the supernatural. • Examples: Story of Aladdin and the magic lamp.
Art and Architecture • Most famous are Islamic Mosques and palaces. • Utilized columns and arches. • Palaces were centered around a courtyard.
Art and Architecture • Cordoba Mosque (Spain)
Art and Architecture • Alhambra in Granada