By Colt Bradley, Arjun Adiha, and Drew Harrelson. The Rise of Islam. Key Terms. Bedouins – Nomadic people in the Arabian Peninsula that herded camels and goats for survival. Early converts of the Islam religion.
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Bedouins – Nomadic people in the Arabian Peninsula that herded camels and goats for survival. Early converts of the Islam religion.
Shaykhs– Leaders of the tribes and clans of Bedouin society. These were the people with the most wealth and power in the clans (largest herd, most wives, and most children).
Mecca – City near the mountainous part of the Arabian Peninsula along the Red Sea. Founded by the Umayyad clan of Quraysh and was the site of Ka’ba. Muhammad’s first home and the major pilgrimage point of the Islam religion.
Medina – Town located northeast of Mecca and was considered a rival. The place where Muhammad stayed while being attacked by the people of Mecca.
Ka’ba (or kaaba) – Most religious shrine in Arabia. Locates in Mecca and caused a truce at certain parts of the year between clans for praying. Important shrine for the Islamic religion.
Quran – The written account of the revelations the Muhammad received. The holy book of Islam.
Zakat– Tax for charity that was obligatory for all Muslims.
Jihad – A struggle usually for the defense of the Islamic religion.
Ridda– Wars that followed the death of Muhammad to get rid of other prophets. Restored the unity of Islam.
Abu Bakr– Good friend of Muhammad and was named the first caliph.
Uthman– Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan. Murder by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt. Death set off a civil war in Islam.
Mu’awiya– Leader of the Umayyad clan and was the first Umayyad caliph (leader of political order in Islam) after the first civil war with Ali.
Sunnis – People who thought political and theological division in Islam would be good and supported the Umayyad clan.
Shi’i– Known as Shi’ites and were a political and theological division within Islam. Followed Ali.