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The Rise of Islam

By Colt Bradley, Arjun Adiha, and Drew Harrelson. The Rise of Islam. Key Terms. Bedouins – Nomadic people in the Arabian Peninsula that herded camels and goats for survival. Early converts of the Islam religion.

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The Rise of Islam

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  1. By Colt Bradley, Arjun Adiha, and Drew Harrelson The Rise of Islam

  2. Key Terms • Bedouins – Nomadic people in the Arabian Peninsula that herded camels and goats for survival. Early converts of the Islam religion. • Shaykhs– Leaders of the tribes and clans of Bedouin society. These were the people with the most wealth and power in the clans (largest herd, most wives, and most children). • Mecca – City near the mountainous part of the Arabian Peninsula along the Red Sea. Founded by the Umayyad clan of Quraysh and was the site of Ka’ba. Muhammad’s first home and the major pilgrimage point of the Islam religion. • Medina – Town located northeast of Mecca and was considered a rival. The place where Muhammad stayed while being attacked by the people of Mecca. • Ka’ba (or kaaba) – Most religious shrine in Arabia. Locates in Mecca and caused a truce at certain parts of the year between clans for praying. Important shrine for the Islamic religion. • Quran – The written account of the revelations the Muhammad received. The holy book of Islam. • Zakat– Tax for charity that was obligatory for all Muslims. • Jihad – A struggle usually for the defense of the Islamic religion. • Ridda– Wars that followed the death of Muhammad to get rid of other prophets. Restored the unity of Islam. • Abu Bakr– Good friend of Muhammad and was named the first caliph. • Uthman– Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan. Murder by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt. Death set off a civil war in Islam. • Mu’awiya– Leader of the Umayyad clan and was the first Umayyad caliph (leader of political order in Islam) after the first civil war with Ali. • Sunnis – People who thought political and theological division in Islam would be good and supported the Umayyad clan. • Shi’i– Known as Shi’ites and were a political and theological division within Islam. Followed Ali.

  3. Pre-Islamic Arabian World • Organization - Bedouin • Dominated most of the dry environment • Nomadic herders • Kin-related clans formed tribes • Tribal contact only in war or crises • Environment forced people to rely on clans - lifeline • Life controlled by councils • shaykhs – leaders of the tribe/clan • Conflict • Slightest action could lead to war and revenge • These fights left them weak and venerable

  4. Towns and Long-Distance Trade • Mecca - in the mountains near the Red Sea • Founded by the Umayyad clan of the Quraysh tribe • Site of Ka’ba - made this city important • Trading town • Medina - northeast of Mecca • A.k.a the city of prophet Muhammad • Established in oasis • Trading town (smaller scale) • Controlled by 2 Bedouin and 3 Jewish clans

  5. Marriage in Pre-Islamic Arabia • Women • Ancestry traced through mother’s side • Multiple patners - but expected to have one husband • Still not equal as men • Men • Only men could be warriors (the best job around the village) • Polygamy allowed • Paid dowry

  6. Poets and Neglected Gods • Culture • Arab culture not developed • Mainly poetry - handed down orally - no writing existed • Religion • Polytheism and animism • Some recognized Allah, but not really paid respect • Connected to nature and morality • Not taken seriously

  7. Genesis of Islam • The towns of the South were destroyed. • Mecca and Medina relied on Bedouins to keep trade open. • Byzantine and Sasanian Empires • Started to control the northern edges of Arabia • Judaism and Christianity entered and prophets appeared saying to start to worship one god. • Muhammad was born • New religion from his revelations • Fed off influences from the monotheistic religions that had entered • Born in Quraysh tribe and lived with relatives in a respected clan • Educated to be a merchant at young age by his uncle • Went on first caravan journey to Syria • Allowed him to see Christian and Jewish faiths, which were very important to his teachings.

  8. Why People Liked it • Elements that gave Islam a universal attraction • Monotheism • Legal Codes • Egalitarianism • Strong sense of community • Five Pillars • Confession of Faith • Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca • Fast during Ramadan • Zakat • Hajj

  9. Muhammed • Worked as trader for Khadijah in Mecca at the age of 20. • Caravan routes allowed him to see the clan rivalries • Some clans were rich, while others were poor. This was a big part of his teachings. • Also allowed him to view monotheistic religions being practiced. • Muhammad started to become dissatisfied with the material items. • Meditated in the hills surrounding Mecca resulting in his first revelation in 610 • Wrote down his ideas in the Qur’an • Qur’an became the basis for the new religion • Began to preach and convert people of Mecca and the Umayyad clan.

  10. Muhammad vs. Umayyad • The Umayyad clan began to dislike his preaching and persecuted Muhammad • Muhammad fled to Medina to stay safe and solve conflicts there • Ali made this possible by becoming a scapegoat for Muhammad • Hijra, the flight from Mecca to Medina, marks the first year of the Islam calendar • Medina’s citizens became followers after seeing Muhammad’s power

  11. Islam Growing • The strengthening of the Islamic religion • Overtook caravans and fought wars against the Quraysh • Beat the Quraysh in 628 and had around 10,000 converts • Proved to people of the power by smashing the idols on the shrine • The people of Mecca joined the Islamic tradition after the defeat • Strong Religion continues to grow • Gave unity to the Arab tribes • Monotheistic religion that didn’t belong to one tribe in particular • Equal to Christianity and Judaism, so it got more converts due to its Arab origin • More uncompromising that other monotheistic faiths because there were no intermediates (saints) • Organized the tribes because the Umma, community of followers, went back to the old tribal boundaries • Allowed the clans to concentrate on using their military skills against others on the outside instead of on each other, which spread the religion • Normal Bedouins gained power in the conquered states, spreading influence • Brought an ethical system into the society, strengthening their trust in the religion • Zakat was introduced, drawing in the poor

  12. Qur’an • Qur’an became a part of law • Showed how important the religion was becoming • Followed this law to prepare for the Last Judgement • The Qur’an controlled the social interaction between the followers

  13. Importance • Islam is the world’s second most practiced religion • United the Middle East and gave it direction • Helped to Develop the Arabic Language • Created and defined many Arab traditions

  14. Islamic Religious Phrases in Arabic • Alhamdulillah

  15. Mecca

  16. Medina

  17. Qur’an

  18. Mosques

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