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Imperialism in INDIA

Imperialism in INDIA

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Imperialism in INDIA

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  1. Imperialism in INDIA

  2. Why Imperialize? Recall . . . * GOODS * GREATNESS / GLORY * GOD

  3. Why Imperialize India? For getting raw materials • India was a major supplier of raw materials • Coffee, tea, indigo (dye for cloth), jute (rope-like material), opium (narcotic drug) & cotton For having a market to sell to • 300 million people were a large potential market for British-made goods This is why India was called the most precious “jewel in [Queen Victoria’s] crown”

  4. British East India Company • India was NOT a British colony at first • India actually “belonged” to the British East India Company • By 1757 the company entered India, and established itself as the leading power • This is an example of economic imperialism

  5. Economic Imperialism economic imperialism is controlled by private business interests • The British East India Company set up restrictions that prevented the Indian economy to operate on its own

  6. British East India Company’s Control • Indian cottage industry could not compete: * Cotton taken as “tax”  shipped to Britain  manufactured into clothing  clothing sold to Indians

  7. Mercantilism

  8. British East India Company’s Control • Forced cash crops: * Subsistence farmers forced to have commercial crops (cash crops) of coffee, tea, indigo, jute, opium, & cotton  hardship for farmers, increased food price, and some famines resulted

  9. British East India Company’s Control • Transportation: * Railroads allowed for the raw materials from the interior of India  ports * Manufactured goods from the ports  sold to the interior parts of India * Railroads were paid for with Indian tax money

  10. British East India Company’s Control • Company controlled army: * British officers oversaw sepoys • SEPOYSwere Indian Soldiers working for the East India Company • They were Muslim and Hindu

  11. British That Went to India • At first it was single men looking to make their fortune with the East India Company • Technology changed who went to India • steamboats shortened the route & later the Suez Canal created a short cut • now women & missionaries were willing to make the trip

  12. Suez Canal • SHORT CUT  India • Built with French $ and Egyptian forced labor • Opened 1869 • British control by 1882

  13. Changes to India • Women & Missionaries wanted to change the relationship between British men & Indian women --- Bebes (mistresses) • Christianity vs. Hinduism - polytheistic - reincarnation - rigid social structure (caste system) - child marriages - practices of suttee / sati (widows burning on their late husbands’ cremation fire)

  14. Brahmin (Priests, Teachers, Administrators) Kashatriya (Soldiers) Vaishya (Merchants, Landowners, Herders) Sudras (Laborers, Servants, Peasants) Dalits (Untouchable or outcasts) (Unclean jobs – street & bathroom cleaners, dealing with dead people & animals)

  15. Sepoy Mutiny • Early 1857 – Mid 1858 • AKA: Indian Rebellion, Indian Mutiny, Sepoy Rebellion, First War of Indian Independence

  16. Causes of the Sepoy Mutiny • British exploitation of India’s economy • Spreading Christianity to Indians • New gun & cartridges • had to bite the cartridge open before loading it into the new gun • rumored to be greased with pork and beef fat (pig is unclean according to Muslims & cow is sacred to Hindus)

  17. The Sepoy Mutiny • Sepoys refused to accept the cartridges • British jailed the Sepoys who refused • Other Sepoys helped them escape and the rebellion begins • The Indian rebellion spreads to other areas in the region • British troops put down the mutiny

  18. Effects of the Sepoy Mutiny • Ended East India Company’s control over India • 1858 - Replaced with direct ruleby the British gov’t • British Raj (rule) lasted for 90 years

  19. “ The sun never sets on the British Empire ”

  20. Impact of Imperialism on India • British built railroads • British built dams, bridges, irrigation, telephones • Introduced sanitation • British built schools  English language, literacy rates increase • Elimination of the caste system & other religious customs (suttee / sati, child marriage, etc.) • Closed Indian cottage industry • Created a cash crop economy • British held the high positions in society & gov’t