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British Imperialism in India. Unit 3 – India Ms. Doyle. European Imperialism 1500-1900. Portuguese Discovery. 1499- Vasco da Gama arrives back in Portugal from a voyage to Calicut, on the Malabar Coast of India. His cargo of spices-pepper, nutmeg, and cloves-fascinate the people

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british imperialism in india

British Imperialism in India

Unit 3 – India

Ms. Doyle

portuguese discovery
Portuguese Discovery
  • 1499- Vasco da Gama arrives back in Portugal from a voyage to Calicut, on the Malabar Coast of India.
  • His cargo of spices-pepper, nutmeg, and

cloves-fascinate the people

  • The trade in spices was the most important reason for European interest in the East.
trade
Trade
  • Europe and Asia were separated by deserts, mountains, and by the powerful Ottoman Empire, which was Muslim in religion and not on friendly terms with Christian Europe.
  • The journey was long and dangerous. Ships had to sail down the coast of Africa, around the Cape of Good Hope and into the Indian Ocean.
  • The trip lasted several years, if the ship made it at all.
other products
Other products
  • Brought back beautiful fabrics and gems
  • Spices and pepper were still the most intriguing
  • The Europeans now saw how good food could taste
portuguese control
Portuguese Control
  • 1505- Portuguese ships sailed into the Indian Ocean and quickly overpowered Arab resistance
  • Alphonso de Albuquerque established the first European settlement at Goa on India’s west coast
  • Portugal controlled the spice trade, and Portuguese trading posts were established in India, in Malaya, and in the Spice Islands
dutch control
Dutch Control
  • The Dutch, expert seamen, and perceptive merchants wasted no time challenging Portugal’s control
  • By 1600 there were several Dutch trading posts in India.
  • The Dutch eventually pushed the Portuguese out of the spice trade
british control
British Control
  • In 1587, English merchants captured a Portuguese ship filled with spices
  • Merchants formed the British East India Company to trade in spices
  • First British settlement was called St. George and was established in 1639
  • 1661- the British gained control of Bombay, which is now India’s second largest city and a great seaport.
  • 1690- a trading post was created at Calcutta, then only a small village, now a city of 12,000,000 people.
competition
Competition
  • British were too busy fighting the Portuguese to establish many trading posts
  • 1612 and 1614, Portuguese navy was defeated and the Dutch became too involved in the islands of Indonesia to compete with the British in India.
  • England and Holland fought over America and the East. Portugal was stuck with much less influential position in the East.
british resistance
British Resistance
  • 1746-1761, the British army defeated several Indian armies and the French who were gaining power
  • 1814-1818 fought against the Gurkhas in northern India
  • 1840- suppressed the Sikhs, who were fierce Indian warriors
  • After the Sikhs were defeated, all of India came under the power of the East India Company
british change
British Change
  • Social reforms were made and cruel customs of Indian society were abolished.

~Suttee, the drowning of unwanted girl babies, slavery

  • Built new roads, harbors, and railways trade extended
  • Established a telegraph system, built schools and colleges, and established uniform law.
  • Thought of eventually giving India her independence
  • India was the “jewel in the Empire’s crown”.
  • Brought peace to parts of India which had suffered turmoil.
the indian mutiny
“The Indian Mutiny”
  • India welcomed the British as traders not rulers led to revolt in 1857
  • Resulted in a mutiny among Indian soldiers who had joined the British army
  • N.India was in revolt for over a year and cruel and bloody battles were fought
  • Led by princes and rulers who had lost their kingdoms to the British and wanted to win them back
  • Attempts failed and the British were more strongly established in India than ever before