Causes of Asian Imperialism: • 1600’s: British East India Company set up in Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. • 1757: East Indian Co. Troops defeat Indian & French. The East India Co. becomes the leading power in India until 1858. • Domination of East Indian Company: • British gov’t. regulates Company’s in London and India. • Company had an army led by British & staffed by sepoys (Indian soldiers) • Served as a large market with a population of 300 million • “Jewel in the crown”
Restrictions place on Indian Economy: • Forced to buy British goods • No competition allowed • Cheap clothes from England drove out local producers • Indian Importance Increases: • Railroad network=fast transport of plantation crops—tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, jute and opium. • The Opium was shipped to China in exchange for tea • Tea was then sold in England.
Sepoy Mutiny Indian discontent with: • Christian missionaries • Racism • Declining economic conditions • Greasing rifle cartridges with beef & pork • Result of discontent: • 85-90 sepoys refuse to accept the cartridges • Soldiers jailed • May 10, 1857 sepoys rebelled • Marched to Delhi and spread rebellion to N. & Central India • The Sepoy Mutiny had begun! • FIERCE FIGHTING • It took more than a year for E.I. Co. to regain control (British troops were needed to help) • Weak leadership and the split between Muslim and Hindus thwarted sepoy success. Hindu preferred British to Muslim rule.
Mutiny=Turning Point • British gov’t now had direct command of India • The part of India under direct British Rule was called the Raj—lasted from 1858-1947 • Cabinet minister in London controlled policy while a British governor-general (viceroy after 1877) in India carried out out his wishes. • British promised to respect all treaties made w/ E.I. Co. • Indian states that were still free would be allowed to be independent • Racism increased
Nationalism • Demand for more modernization • Greater Indian role in gov’t • Movement away from tradition to more modern • Call for adoption of Western Ways • Fed up with second class standing in their own country • Indians barred from top posts in the Indian Civil Service and were paid significantly—sometimes 20x less than a European ****All the above fosters a growing feeling of nationalism
Indian National Congress (1885) & Muslim League (1906) • These groups were formed as a result of growing nationalism • Early on they called for specific reforms • By 1900’s they called for self-government • Conflict over control would continue for many years to come!
Negative Positive Impact of Colonialism