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British Imperialism in India

British Imperialism in India

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British Imperialism in India

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  1. British Imperialism in India Ch.11 Sec. 4

  2. India

  3. Great Britain in India 1600’s Great Britain set up trading posts through out India

  4. British East India Company ● controlled British trade in India • eventually the company gained political control over Bangladesh, Southern India, and Northern India (along Ganges River)

  5. British East India Company • 1800’s: company operated in India with no regulation by British government • company had its own army • Company army led by British army officers

  6. Sepoys • Indians who joined British armies in India • Resented by other Indians

  7. “Jewel in the Crown” • Great Britain considered India its most precious jewel (colony) in its Imperial crown

  8. “Jewel in the Crown” • Industrial Revolution turned India into a major supplier of raw materials to Great Britain • 300 million Indians were a large market for British products

  9. “Jewel in the Crown” • British forbade India from trading on its own with other countries • India was forced to produce raw materials for only Britain and to buy finished products from only Britain • Indian competition with British finished products was forbidden

  10. “Jewel in the Crown” • Britain set up a railroad network to take raw materials from inside India to its ports

  11. Raw Materials Taken from India • Tea • Indigo (dye for clothing)

  12. Raw Materials Taken from India • Coffee • Cotton

  13. Raw Materials Taken from India • Jute (fiber for making rope) • Opium (plant that heroin is made from)

  14. Raw Materials Taken from India • Britain relied more on raw materials from India as wars around the world cut off British supplies from other places • example: American Civil War (1861-1865) made Indian cotton more important to Great Britain because cotton supply from America was cut off

  15. Positives for India • Great Britain laid the world’s third largest railroad network in India • Railroads brought unity to disconnected regions in India • Modern road network ■ Telephone and telegraph lines • Dams, bridges, canals • Sanitation and public health improved • Schools/ colleges founded • Truces between local warring rulers in India

  16. British held all political and economic power British restricted Indian-owned industries Cash crops made it impossible for small farmers to produce enough food for themselves Racist attitudes of most British officials and missionaries threatened Indian traditional life Negatives for India

  17. Indians Rebel By 1850 most Indians resented that Great Britain owned their country Indians were angry at attempts to forcefully convert them to Christianity Indians were angry Britain controlled all useful land in their country ■ Indians were angry at the constant racism expressed towards them by the British

  18. Sepoy Mutiny • 1857 gossip spread amongst Sepoys (Indian soldiers for the British) • the seals of their ammunition had to be bitten off • they believed the British dipped the seals of their ammunition in beef and pork (Hindus can not eat beef/ Muslims can not eat pork)

  19. Sepoy Mutiny British commander was outraged when 85 Sepoys refused to accept the ammunition The Sepoys were jailed for disobeying orders May 10, 1857 Sepoys rebelled; marched on Delhi (Indian capital) rebellion spread into northern and central India

  20. Sepoy Mutiny Fierce fighting between British and Sepoys (aided by other Indians) East India Company took more than a year to regain control of the country British government sent troops to help them

  21. Indians Did Not Fully Unite During Sepoy Mutiny serious splits between Hindus and Muslims unclear inconsistent leadership Many Indian princes did not take part in the rebellion (made alliances with British) Sikhs (Indian religious group) remained loyal to the British

  22. Sikhs

  23. Sikhs • Minority Indian religious group • Sikhs feared Muslims would regain control of the country during Sepoy Mutiny ■ Muslim Mughals ruled India before Britain

  24. Sikhs • Sikhs replaced Sepoys in Britain’s Indian army after the Sepoy Mutiny • Mughals did not allow religious freedom • Great Britain allowed some religious freedom in India

  25. Turning Point • 1858 British government took direct control over India (because of the Mutiny) • Raj (time period when India was under Great Britain’s control: 1757-1947)

  26. Raj • India was divided into 11 Provinces and 250 districts sometimes a handful of officials would be the only British amongst millions of Indians in a district • Mutiny increased distrust between British and Indians: it fueled more British racism towards Indians

  27. Ram Mohun Roy (1772-1833) • well-educated Indian who began a campaign to modernize India • he was opposed to India’s caste system (social class system that ties a person to the social class they are into for life: based on Hindu beliefs) • opposed to child marriages and widow suicides • believed these practices needed to be changed if India wanted to be free from rule by outsiders

  28. Ram Mohun Roy (1772-1833) other Indian writers picked up on Roy’s ideas and called for changes Indian resented being second-class citizens in their own country Indians were paid 20 times less than British Indians could not hold top jobs in government

  29. Indian National Congress 1885 Made up of Hindus; called for self-government upset that Britain segregated Bengal (Indian city) into Muslim section and Hindu section in 1905 INC led acts of violence against British in Bengal 1911 Britain changed the order of segregation

  30. Muslim League 1906 Made up of Muslims also called for self-government also upset about segregation of Bengal in1905 also participated in acts of violence against British in India

  31. Indian Nationalism Grows • Indian National Congress (Hindus)/Muslim League (Muslims) Found Common Ground • Both worked together towards Indian Independence

  32. World War I • Great Britain got 1 Million Indians to enlist in the British army to fight in World War I • Britain promised Indians self-government in exchange for them enlisting in the British army 1918 Indian troops returned home: expected Britain to fulfill its promise

  33. Rowlatt Act (1919) • instead Indian troops were treated as second class citizens again by Great Britain • many Indians committed acts of violence against British in India in response Great Britain passes Rowlatt Act (1919) in response

  34. Rowlatt Act (1919) • allowed British gov’t to jail protestors for 2 years with no trial • violent protests by Indians in Punjab (province with most Indian World War I veterans)

  35. Amritsar Massacre (Spring 1919) • 10,000 Hindus and Muslims went to Amritsar (capital of Punjab Province): festival to pray and hear political speeches • alliance of Hindus and Muslims scared the British

  36. Amritsar Massacre (Spring 1919) Britain had earlier banned public protests: Britain issued the ban without informing most Indians! British General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to fire on the unarmed crowd without warning Shooting lasted 10 minutes: 400 Indians Killed; 1200 wounded news of the massacre spread rapidly across India: Indians demanded independence

  37. Amritsar Massacre set the stage for Mohandas Gandhi to become leader of the Indian Independence Movement his teachings blended ideas from all major world religions (especially Hinduism, Christianity, Islam) Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)

  38. Gandhi preached/practiced Civil Disobedience deliberate and public refusal to obey any unjust law rebellion without violence 1920 Indian National Congress officially adopts Gandhi’s policy as a means to push for independence Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)

  39. Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) • Gandhi’s Plan for Civil Disobedience: • Refuse to buy British goods • Refuse to attend British schools • Refuse to pay British taxes • Refuse to vote in elections • Indians weave their own cloth (to put British cloth out of business)

  40. Civil Disobedience • 1922 Indian rioters attacked a police station and set officers on fire! • Many British businesses went out of business in India • British arrested Indians who protested and boycotted

  41. Salt Acts 1930 • These laws required that Indians buy salt only from the British government (without refrigeration, salt was crucial to keeping food from spoiling) • Required Indians to pay a sales tax to British on salt as well

  42. Salt March 1930 • In protest Gandhi and his followers walked 240 miles to the coast to make their own salt • demonstrators marched to a British salt processing plant to protest • made salt by evaporating sea water

  43. Salt March 1930 British police attacked protestors with steel clubs Protestors refused to defend themselves: marching peacefully British arrested 60,000 peaceful protestors (including Gandhi) International newspapers covered the event: won worldwide support for Gandhi’s movement

  44. Great Britain Grants India Self-Rule • 1935 Government of India Act ■ British Parliament allows India some self- rule ■ Allowed for local self- government (mayors) and limited elections (regional representatives) • This was the first step in full independence for India • Gandhi and his campaign was successful

  45. Internal Conflict India does not get full independence until after World War II (after 1945) Hindus far outnumbered Muslims in India Hindus and Muslims had conflicting views for India’s future Leads to more internal conflict