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Imperialism in India

Imperialism in India

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Imperialism in India

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  1. Imperialism in India

  2. New Imperialism • European countries sought out direct control over vast territories • Capitalist markets were looking for markets and raw materials (i.e. rubber, tin, oil, rice, gold, diamonds, etc.)

  3. Q: How did the European powers keep the colonies under control?

  4. Types of Government (1) Indirect Rule: Local rulers were allowed to keep their authority and status in a new colonial setting • It was cheaper because fewer officials were needed to be trained

  5. Types of Government (2) Direct Rule: If local leaders did not cooperate with Europeans they were replaced with European officials • Local elites were not allowed to hold powerful positions in government

  6. (3) Protectorate • A state or territory partly controlled by the military or government of a stronger state • Dependent on another country for its protection • Autonomous in internal affairs

  7. Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia • Dutch East Indies • Malay Peninsula • Indochina • Philippines • British India • Burma • Australia

  8. Dutch East Indies • Known for its rich soil which allowed the harvesting of: coffee, pepper, cinnamon, sugar, indigo, and tea • Mines were formed to exploit rich deposits of tin and copper • Forests yielded timber and hardwoods

  9. Dutch East Indies • The Dutch became notorious for the use of forced slave labor, known as the culture system

  10. Philippine Islands • Spanish used similar methods to reap the rewards from their tobacco and sugar plantations in the Philippine Islands • In 1898, the Philippines were given to the United States as part of the settlement for their loss of the Spanish-American War

  11. Southeast Asia Mainland • British took control of India in the early 1800s • Meanwhile, the French imperialized modern-day Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam forming French Indochina

  12. British Rule in India • To rule India, the British East India Company had its own soldiers and military bases • The Company hired sepoys (Indian soldiers) protect Britain’s interests • Sepoys made up 84% of troops employed in India

  13. Fighting for Independence • 1857: Indians led the Sepoy Mutiny • Indians called this the First War of Independence • Immediate case of revolt: Rumor spread that the troops’ new rifle cartridges were made of cow and pig fat

  14. Muslim and Hindu Beliefs

  15. Sepoy Mutiny • After a group of Sepoys were imprisoned for refusing to load their rifles, troops went on a rampage killing 50 British men, women, and children

  16. Cost of British Rule • British manufactured goods destroyed local industries • British textiles put Indian women out of work • Increased taxes • Stripped the Indian people of their civil rights

  17. Starvation • Forced farmers to switch from growing food to cotton • Food supplies could not keep up with growing population • 30 million Indians starved

  18. A Fight for Independence Mohandas Gandhi “Nonviolence is the first article of my faith. It is also the last article of my creed.”

  19. Social Unrest and Violence • Indians killed 200 British women at the House of Ladies in Kanpur • British parliament transferred power from the British East India Company directly to the British government • British brought order and stability to India by appointing a Viceroy (British governor)

  20. Gandhi Movie Clips • – first ½ • – salt march • – fasting?