First Nations By: Annette, Jamie, Traevin, and Trent.
Unit 1: 1000 BCE – 1600 CE • Between 1000 CE to the late 1700s, European explorers began arriving in North America, marking the beginning of their take over. • 1000 to 1003 CE: the arrival of Leif Erikson. • 1497: the arrival of John Cabot. • 1534: the arrival of Jacques Cartier. • 1604: the arrival of Samuel de Champlain and others. • The arrival of these explorers initiated trade with the Native people which continued for many centuries, introduced guns into their society, and resulted in the Aboriginals contracting many diseases.
Unit 2: 1604 - 1763 • 1609: Battle of Ticonderoga Point – this battle introduced guns to the Aboriginal people (specifically the Iroquois, who lost due to their enemies having guns in their possession), and was the beginning of the French using the Aboriginals to help them achieve their goals. • 1608 to the 1660s and onward: The introduction of Coureurs de bois– coureurs de bois, who lived amongst several Aboriginal groups, learned the ways of the different nations, and soon resulted in the arrival of the missionaries. The first coureur de bois was Etienne Brule, who lived amongst the Huron. • 1634: The arrival of the Jesuits – Jean de Brebeuf and other missionaries arrive in Ste. Marie to begin preaching to the Hurons. The Jesuits began preaching the Catholic faith to the Indians, and as time went on, more Indians began converting to Catholicism.
1663: Royal Government established – under the government of New France, Aboriginal slaves of the colony had no citizenship rights. • 1670: The Hudson’s Bay Company is founded –the “beginning” of the English trading with the Aboriginals for furs. • 1673: French fur traders begin moving North and West – trade with the Aboriginals after this time period is where the custom of trading alcohol for furs became extremely popular. The introduction of alcohol to the First Nations communities had destructive effects, some of which are still occurring in today’s communities. • 1749: The Mi’kmaq declare war on the English – the Mi’kmaq war resulted in significant loss of life and territory for the First Nations involved. • 1763: Royal Proclamation Act – after losing considerable amounts of land in the summer of 1763, the Proclamation was designed to counteract the fears of the Aboriginals due to their loss of land.
Unit 3: 1774 - 1867 • 1774: The Quebec Act – the Aboriginals were not mentioned in the Act, and despite being allowed to remain on their lands, they did not have any territorial rights. • 1776: The American Revolution – the Six Nations allied with the British during the war. This resulted in the villages of many First Nations to be destroyed by the Americans. • 1790 to 1793: Aboriginals surrender mass amounts of land – a total of 2, 024, 000 hectares of Aboriginal land was surrendered for a total of 2400 euros. • 1812: War of 1812 – to prevent further land loss and to gain back land that was lost during the American Revolution, Tecumseh united Aboriginal people and allied them with the British. By the end of the war, the Aboriginal people had still lost, as the western American expansion caused them to lose even more land.
1829: Shanawdithitdies – the death of Shanawdithit marked the end of the Beothuk tribe in Newfoundland. The tribe’s extinction has been said to have been caused by European settlement and the diseases they brought with them, specifically tuberculosis. • 1839: Crown Lands Protection Act is passed – this act declared that all Aboriginal lands belonged to the British Crown. • Mid 1800s: Residential Schools – the creation of residential schools for Aboriginal children, which were federally-funded and ran by the Catholic, Anglican, United, and Presbyterian churches, resulted in a severe loss of culture, language, and family connection.
Units 4 and 5: 1876 - 1945 • 1869: Rupert’s Land Act and the Red River Rebellion – when Rupert’s Land was purchased, no mention was made of the Metis who lived there. The Red River Rebellion, led by Louis Riel prevented surveyors observing the land and the take over, and resulted in the Manitoba Act being created, which made the new land a bilingual, bicultural, and bi-educational province. • 1871: Beginning of the Numbered Treaties – the treaties, which were signed as a last resort due to famine and poverty, allowed the Canadian government to pursue land for new settlements. The last of the Numbered Treaties was signed in 1921. • 1876: The Indian Act – the Act gave the government exclusive authority over Indians and their land. Aboriginals were not given the same rights as other Canadian citizens. • 1885: The North-West Rebellion – the Metis people did not get the land promised to them in the Manitoba Act. This resulted in a split nation based on issues regarding language, religion, and race, and the execution of Louis Riel.
1914: The Great War – during the Great War, Aboriginal men were used as runners and sharp shooters. • 1919: End of the Great War – upon returning home, Aboriginal people were not given the same benefits/pensions as other soldiers. • 1919: The League of Nations is formed – created by Frederick Loft, a lieutenant in the army during WWI, the League of Nations marked the beginning of political mobilization for Aboriginal people. The League faced opposition and discrimination from the Canadian government and were often charged due to “conditions” listed in the Indian Act. By the mid-1930s, the League of Indians had collapsed. • 1930s: The Great Depression – during the Depression, the Government did little to fulfill the duties outlined in treaties, and many Aboriginal communities suffered from a lack of healthcare. Approximately 90% of the Metis population had been infected with disease, and the Metis people were threatened by the very real threat of extinction.
1939 to 1945: The Second World War – excluding the Metis, over 3000 Aboriginal Canadians were recorded as having served in WWII. However, the majority of Aboriginals were forced to serve with the army, as the RCAF and RCN had entrance restrictions and preferred Canadians who were of British Decent.
Units 6 and 7: 1945 - 2002 • 1949: The right to vote – non-status Indians were now permitted to vote federally. • 1950: The right to vote and funding – Inuit people were now also permitted to vote. During the 50s, bands also gained the right to administer their own funds. • 1960: The right to vote – status Indians were permitted to vote in federal elections for the first time. • 1961: Formation of the National Indian Advisory Council – this council represented statusand non-status Indians as well as the Metis. • 1968: Formation of the National Indian Brotherhood and the Native Council of Canada – due to the different goals of each group in the Advisory Council, status Indians formed the National Indian Brotherhood (became the Assembly of First Nations in 1980), while non-status Indians and the Metis formed the Native Council of Canada (now called the Congress of Aboriginal Peoples).
1969: White Paper – by putting forward a White Paper, Trudeau wanted to terminate special rights/status of Indians in return for financial settlement. However the policy was retracted after opposition from Aboriginal people and the Red Paper put forward by the opposition which argued for the continuation of Aboriginal status. • 1990: Meech Lake Accord – Aboriginal people believed they should have rights that were similar to French and English Canadians. The Meech Lake Accord did not guarantee Aboriginal rights. The Accord was not passed before the deadline, and was therefore invalid. • 1996: Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples – this commission recommended, amongst many other things, how Aboriginals should be governed and that Aboriginal governments should be recognized as a third order of government. • 1996: End of Residential Schools – the last federally-operated/funded school is closed. • 1998: Nisga’a Final Agreement – the British Columbia government settled a land claim for the Nisga’a Nation and. It also provided them with $500 million dollars in cash, grants, program funds, and area improvements. They were also given self-government over culture, language, land use, education, etc. • 1999: Creation of Nunavut – the creation of Nunavut provided the Inuit people with a place in Canada. The Inuit gained an agreement from the government after years of negotiations on land, self-government, and political rights.