FIRST NATIONS THE TREATY PROCESS
Native people – descendants of Canada’s original inhabitants – have had a complex, and often difficult relationship with the non Natives (mainly European) • Europeans came over about 500 years ago • Natives became a small minority on own land • Forced to sign agreements – called treaties
Natives wanted to accomplish two things by signing treaties • Wanted to maintain own natural resources (fishing, land). • Right to control their own lives These goals FAILED MISERABLEY
FIRST NATIONS • Is a native group • Members share a common culture and history • Wish to be treated as a distinct group on this basis
3 NATIVE GROUPS • For legal purposes, our government divides Native people into three groups • Indian (First Nations) • Inuit – aboriginals in the north – 5% • Métis – descendants of European Fur Traders AND aboriginal people – 30%
METIS • Were not recognized by government as one of the three aboriginal groups until 1982.
1. LOST LAND AND ECONOMIC BASE • Aboriginals lost land and economic base • Lost to due to settlement of Europeans • Given “reserves” live on… • however, reserves were not large enough or rich enough to provide a sound economic base
RESERVES • 2360 reserves • Less than 0.3% of Canada’s land area • 800 000 people of first nations descent • Many reserves are poor in resources • Very difficult to live their way of live
ABORIGINALS HAD 2 CHOICES • Can stay on reserves with family and friends • But face a future of unemployment and poverty • Or they can move to the city in hopes of a better economic future • But only by abandoning their community
2. NO RIGHTS… - LACK OF SELF GOVERNMENT • Native people given no right to govern themselves • Had to send native children to “European” schools • Taken from home • In large towns • Forced to learn new language and way of life • Punished if spoken own language
Canadian government had laws to protect wildlife… • Native people traditionally hunted to live • Aboriginal leaders argue that these should not apply to natives
Native people also harmed by development • Dams - Flood native land
NUNAVUT WAS CREATED!!! Read Page 52 - 53
CANADA • Is from the Huron-Iroquois word Kanata meaning “village”.
TORONTO • Is from the Mohawk word tkaronto meaning “trees standing in the water”
WINNIPEG • Is from the Cree words win-nipi meaning “murky water”.
SASKATCHEWAN • Is from the Cree words Kisikatchewani Sipi meaning “swift-flowing river”.