First Nations Sissi Sheng Ms. Eleveld CIA 4U May 22nd
Learning Goals • I will be able to explain the historical background of the First Nations people in Canada (e.g. residential schools). • I will be able to identify the socio-economic problems facing the First Nations people. • I will be able to describe the resource development that is happening on the traditional lands of the First Nations people. • I will be able to analyse theeconomic and socio-cultural impact of resource developmenton the traditional lands of the First Nations People (e.g. logging and commercial fishing in British Columbia, mining in the North, gaming in Ontario).
1st Learning Goal To explain the historical background of the First Nations people in Canada (e.g. residential schools).
First Nation & Aboriginal people Aboriginal people First Nations (Indians) Inuit Mētis
Historicalbackground • For at least 12,000 years • Survived in a harsh environment • Lived mainly from hunting and fishing • Self-government • Complex material cultures (tools, clothing, shelter, transportation, etc.)
Historical Background(About Residential Schools19th century) • A federally run boarding school, under the Department of Indian Affairs. • The Canadian Government believed it was responsible for educating aboriginal people. • Learn English, Christianity and adopted lifestyle for life in mainstream society.
Historical Background(About Residential Schools19th century) • Discouraged from speaking their first language or practising native traditions • Rarely had opportunities to see examples of normal family life. • All correspondence from the children was written in English, which many parents couldn't read. • All activities were segregated by gender. Use Your Imagination~
2nd Learning Goal To identify the socio-economic problems facing the First Nations people.
Discussion • Take residential schools for example What do you think is the impact of residential schools on children/ communities (First Nations)?
Socio-economic Problems • Communities became childless- segregation and isolation • Rampant physical and sexual abuse • Emotional Traditional values changed (language) • Family disconnection • Shame and guilt for being “savages” i.e. not civilized • Feelings of not belonging, depression and anger • Traditional knowledge discouraged and devalued • Separation from each other and the land
Socio-economic Problems(Ongoing Impact) • Rate of suicide (6 X higher than mainstream society) • Addictions & health problems • Poverty & Unemployment • Illiteracy & high school drop out • Domestic, violence and sexual abuse • Racism, external and internalized oppression (future alienation)
Socio-economic Problems • “Over many decades, … We have experienced harmful environmental, socio-economic, and cultural impacts resulting from colonialism, industrial events, and past hydroelectric development … My Tribe currently suffers from a high rate of poverty and unemployment, and lacks necessary educational, job and business opportunities. The young people are especially disadvantaged in this regard; and as our population continues to grow, the problem will only worsen. … It has been the experience of trappers, gatherers, hunters, fishermen and Elders that this cannot solely sustain us. We require additional forms of economic development and revenue for our Tribe.” -- August 22, 2002, Chief Duke Beardy, Tataskweyak Cree Nation, letter to the Editor, City Pages.
Socio-economic Problems(Check your understanding) • A high rate of poverty and unemployment • Lacks necessary educational, job and business opportunities • Disadvantaged young people What socio-economic problems are mentioned in the previous selection?
3rd Learning Goal To describe the resource development that is happening on the traditional lands of the First Nations people.
Resource Development • “Now, a series of projects – mines in Ontario and Quebec, potash plants in Saskatchewan, oil sands operations in Alberta, pipelines and natural gas export terminals in British Columbia – have begun to rewrite the priorities for aboriginal Canadians, shifting the focus onto resource development and setting the future agenda for whoever is elected to lead the AFN.”
Resource Development Resources: • Mining & pipelines - coal, petroleum, and natural gas (for jobs and economic development, great GDP) • Logging and Forestry (including wood product, and pulp and paper manufacturing) • Commercial Fishing
Resource Development(About Fishery) • “The Pacific Region is home to diverse commercial, recreational and Aboriginal fisheries. The value of the commercial fishery in 2007 was more than $230 million and includes salmon, groundfish, pelagic and shellfish species… Through consultation, cooperative management and stewardship activities, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) regional staff and Aboriginal groups are working together to build strong, healthy relationships and sustainable fisheries.” -----Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Resource Development(About Fishery) “Fisheries in British Columbia are in a period of transition as a result of increasing demands and pressures on the resource … This includes First Nations seeking increasing shares in the fishery and greater involvement in management and decision-making… However, First Nations in BC have lacked a strong, collective vision … and to address the wide range of other regional and provincial fisheries issues. As a result, First Nations often find themselves reacting to issues … as well as actions and decisions taken by the commercial, sport and recreational fishing sectors or others.”
Resource Development(About Mining) IOGC (Indian Oil And Gas Canada) is responsible for carrying out the legal obligations of the federal government related to the management of oil and gas resources on First Nation lands, and to support First Nation initiatives for managing and controlling their oil and gas resources. ---- Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Canada
Resource Development(About Forestry) The First Nation Forestry Program (FNFP) is intended to promote forest-based economic development in First Nation communities. Specifically, the program supports First Nation initiatives to: • enhance their capacity to sustainably manage reserve forests, • enhance their capacity to participate in forest-based businesses, • increase First Nation cooperation and partnerships, and • investigate mechanisms for financing First Nation forestry development. The program is jointly administered and funded by AANDC and NRCan.
4th Learning Goal To analyse theeconomic and socio-cultural impact of resource developmenton the traditional lands of the First Nations People
Class Activity Use your imagination again~ Pretend that you are one member of First Nations. What do you think will change in your life? How do you feel about it?
Economic And Socio-Cultural Impact(About Gaming In Ontario) “The reality is that when it comes to First Nations and Aboriginals in Canada, gambling giveth and gambling taketh away. OLG says Ontario‘s First Nations will share in their expansion’s profits, but statistics suggest First Nations communities are already being torn apart by gambling addiction at a disproportionate rate.” ---Helping or Harming Ontario Gaming Expansion And First Nations
Economic And Socio-Cultural Impact(About Mining) “It also, however, frequently interferes with First Nations’ use of their traditional lands and significantly harms the environment to which their cultureis inextricably linked. B.C. mining laws provide some safeguards for First Nations and the environment, but they favor the industry they are intended to regulate and do not adequately institutionalize the special protections First Nations are entitled to under international and domestic law. While some First Nations have benefited from mining within their boundaries, in general, First Nations bear an unfair burden at every point in the mining process.” ---- BEARING THE BURDEN THE EFFECTS OF MINING ON FIRST NATIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
Economic And Socio-Cultural Impact(About Fishing) The following table shows the total economic and employment impacts of non-outfitted sport fishing in Saskatchewan. (Expenditures that would be lost if not for the sport fishing industry.)
Economic And Socio-Cultural Impact(About Fishing) “The social impacts of commercial fishing are significant in terms of both employment and cultural significance.. …While the economic impact analysis indicates that the industry should employ 200 full-time equivalent positions the reality is that commercial fishing directly employs 1,200 people on a seasonal basis…. When asked on a scale of one to ten how important fishing was as a part of culture, lifestyle or tradition, respondents had an average response of 9.4.
Discussion What do you think has the most impact on the resource development, a negative influence or a positive influence?
Economic & Socio-Cultural Impact (Check Your Understanding) Positive: • It increases First Nations authority and responsibility for land environmental management. • It provides job opportunities and businesses. • It promotes increase in GDP and economic growth. • It promotes resource development. • It encourages traditionally related employment and retains the culture.
Negative: • Addiction and Poverty of First Nations • Harm the environment and their cultures • Inadequate institutionalized industries • Unfair burden in the (mining) process • Cause potential seasonal unemployment
Work Cited GREEN GREEN WATER BIASED. N.p., 22 Aug. 2002. Web. 21 May 2013. "BC First Nations Fisheries Action Plan." British Columbia Assembly Of First Nations, n.d. Krishnaswamy, A, L Joseph, E Simmons, G Thomas, and J Passmore. "First Nations, Forestry, and Natural Resources Information Needs in British Columbia." FORREX, 2009. Web. 21 May 2013. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. N.p., 2011. Web. 21 May 2013. Murray, Derek. "Final Report Economic Evaluation of Saskatchewan's Commercial and Non-Outfitted Sport Fishing." Saskatchewan Environment, Dec. 2006. Web. 21 May 2013.
Work Cited "Residential Schools A History of Residential Schools in Canada." CBC news Canada. N.p., 16 May 2008. Web. 21 May 2013. "A Brief History Of First Nations Colonization And Impacts." N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2013. Canada's First Peoples. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2013. First Nation History. Aundeck Omni Kaning, n.d. Web. 21 May 2013. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Government of Canada, n.d. Web. 21 May 2013. Goffin, Peter. Rabble.ca. N.p., 25 Mar. 2013. Web. 21 May 2013. "Bearing the Burden The Effects of Mining of First Nations British Columbia." International Human Rights Program, Harvard Law School, 7 June 2010. Web. 21 May 2 2013.