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Agricultural Revolution

Agricultural Revolution

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Agricultural Revolution

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  1. Agricultural Revolution Liv Winnicki

  2. Pre Agricultural Revolution 80% of Europe revolves around agriculture ancient/medieval practices harvest were small during drought or flood entire harvest gone so people would starve Harvest was very important

  3. Open Field System made in medieval times peasant system. divided land throughout village nobility, clergy, wealthy owned it and peasants farmed it exhausted the soil and made it harder to farm=crop failure Gleaners were women who would scavenge the field after harvest and pick the leftover grains

  4. Peasants high taxes east europe was dominated by serfdom social conditions better in western europe

  5. The Revolution new organization of rotation patterns that didn’t exhaust soil improved farming= farmed fodder, so more food for animals= more meat=better food and diets= more cows=more fertilizer=more manure=more fertile land Started in the low countries: Enclosed fields, rotation, manuring, drainage, and changing crops. Started in the low countries because they had a high population to feed and very little land. They needed drainage innovation because the low countries are at sea level. England stole their ideas from drainage inventor, Cornelius Vermuyden who visited Cambridge. And Charles Townshend who learned about it while serving as an ambassador to holland. and Jethro Tull an englishmen made innovations in horses for plowing and selective livestock breeding.

  6. Enclosure Open field system ends. Opens up experimental farming and improvement many english lost farmland and had to become tenant farmers. (farmers who rented land from owners) took away common peasant right because no access to common pasture and led to the landless rural proletariat in english society. Wealthy english land owners owned most of the land, rented to the middle sized farmers, who employed the landless to work the land

  7. Population The idea that population in this time grew rapidly is wrong. People didn’t marry young if they weren't rich and didn’t have huge families. Until 1700 population grew slow because of black death and famine in 1300s. and in 1500s food prices rose and standard of living fell. birth rate and death rate were about balanced because of disease, famine, war population rose because of Medical innovations, sewage, drainage, sanitation, quarantines, people saved more food for famine times and transportation to ship in food in case of a famine. but now that population was growing and more people could work, innovation was needed

  8. Cottage Industry Industry in rural areas grew with population: manufacturing by peasants with hand tools Putting out system: a merchant and rural worker together. Merchant gives raw materials to worker. Worker processes the materials and sells it back to merchant who then sells it to public. Domestic industry Started in England

  9. Textile Industry making linen, wool, and cotton cloth in putting out system workshops in the house The whole present family participated. Women and children prepped the material, man spun thread and wove the cloth. kids cleaned it. Unmarried women and widows recruited to help. Rural labor wasn't paid much so the product was not always perfect Families didn't work holy days Merchant did not control schedule or know his workers

  10. Atlantic Economy England dominated trade because of their practice of mercantilism in the 17th century with its colonies France under Louis XIV and Colbert benefited from it also put state’s profit above individuals profit Navigation Acts under Cromwell Limited colonial trade with anyone but England=monopoly

  11. American Colonies British moved to colonies because there was enough land to own own farm American farmers kept most of their production unlike england cheap land and little labor there so employment rapid population growth in american colonies in 18th century agricultural rev led to higher standard of living in colonies

  12. Growth of Foreign Trade market expands because of the wealthy economy sustained by British manufacturing rising demand stimulated the growth of cottage industry diversified products in order to continue making export profit while competing with the Dutch success of the 18th century English dominate most of the atlantic economy

  13. Colonial Latin America The last Spanish Habsburg, Charles II, died in 1700 and Louis XIV’s grandson, Philip V took the throne. He brought french men and ideas in 1763 they received Louisiana territory from france and spread across western north america in 1800, spanish gold and silver accounted for half the world's production. this wealth allowed Creoles in the colonies to afford european goods Creoles used debt peonage on the natives, which is forced labor due to debt to have cheap labor Spanish colonies became rich from silver, gold, sugar, slaves

  14. Adam Smith Enlightenment thinker economic liberalism critical of mercantilism and monopolies “No society can surely be flourishing and happy, of which the far great part of the members are poor and miserable.” Competition and free market ideas invisible hand idea