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The Agricultural Revolution

The Agricultural Revolution

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The Agricultural Revolution

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  1. The Agricultural Revolution Surplus, Cities, Trade, Empire

  2. Modern Man • Homo Sapiens Sapiens Appear c. 40-50,000bp • In 2nd half of the last glacial period (70-12,000bp) • At end of ice age climate still sub-arctic w/ frequent rain/drought • Humankind  still cave-dwelling hunter • Cave-art show bows & flint-tipped arrows • Warming period after last ice age. 8500 bce • Change in vegetation  dryer, increased reliance on grasses that grew in mountain foothills • Extinction of large mammals  mammoths, mastodons • Humankind adapts to changes • Supplements meager diet with wild wheat • Flint sickles, mortar & pestles • “Incipient agriculture” not yet planting the crop

  3. The Mountains Surrounding Mesopotamia

  4. “Agricultural Revolution”c. 6,000 bce (8,000 bp) • Cultivation of wheat & barley begins on mountain slops of large, arid, river valleys • Tigris-Euphrates & Indus rivers • Dry-farming (rain and small streams diverted via ditch) • Fired pottery, polished stone tools • Domestication of goats, pigs, cattle • earliest villages • Cultivation  created humankind’s 1st“SURPLUS” • Surplus permitted increased population • Increasing population led to… • pressure to move down into flat, arid valley • But , how control the irregular flow of big rivers?

  5. Taming the Rivers • Built Levees & Canals • Large scale irrigation • Two key results of irrigated cultivation • Required social organization  government • Much larger “Surplus”  leads to… • Not everyone had to farm  specialized crafts, military • 1st large towns, (Ur, Uruk, Eridu, Umma, & others) • These soon became city states c. 3500 bce • Urban culture • Elite governing classes (priests) • Division of population into “Social Classes”

  6. Other important Developmentsin Tigris-Euphrates river valley • Need to keep records of surplus Writing • Wheel • Bronze (copper & tin) • Brick & stone buildings (private & public) • Legal system  Hammarubi Code • City-states unified  • First empire created  SUMER

  7. Sumer

  8. Sumer3200 – 2360

  9. Similar Development in Other large River Valleys • Tigris & Euphrates Rivers • Nile River • Indus River (flowing from the Himalayas) • Huang-Ho

  10. River Valleys not self-sufficient,lacked… • Minerals (copper for bronze), wood, spices • How obtain??? TRADE

  11. How do ancients become powerful empires? • Be by a water source • Use irrigation to develop agricultural surplus • Use surplus to: • TRADE • free some people for other things

  12. Sumerians Babylonians Egyptians Minoans - Greeks Phoenicians Romans Chinese Parthians Some Ancient Traders

  13. Mesoptamia2500 - 1700

  14. The Egyptians

  15. Egyptian Trade2850-715

  16. The Egyptians • Exported papyrus, linen, grain • Imported ivory, ebony, leopard skins, ostrich eggs and plumes, gold, cattle and slaves from Nubia (Kush), wood from the Levant

  17. The Minoans2600 - 1425

  18. The Mycenaens1350

  19. The Early Greeks • Minoans control Crete - 1600 BC • Greeks learned to combine tin and copper to make bronze • Mycenaeans traded bronze , pottery, hides, timber, wine, olive oil for tin, copper, ivory, linen, papyrus, and rope

  20. Athens • Athenians couldn’t feed themselves so they exported olive oil, wine, and pottery for grain from Russia and timber from Macedonia • Athens was the largest importer of grain in the ancient world • Athenian fleet determined Athenian supremacy - paid for with silver from Athenian mines

  21. The Greeks

  22. The Phoenicians

  23. Phoenicians=Canaanites=Lebanese • Traded for 1000 years, opening the Mediterranean • Timber = Cedars of Lebanon, supplied Greeks, Egyptians, Israelites (Temple of Solomon) • Large jars filled with wine and olive oil • Skilled laborers • Distribution center for Egyptian goods including papyrus, linen and ivory - Byblos = book, Bible

  24. The Phoenicians

  25. Phoenicians • Cut off from land to the east, they became masters of the sea - Tyre, Sidon, Beirut • At first, stayed close, trading for copper from Cyprus and wool from Rhodes • Eventually sailed by night and out of sight of land. • Through Gibraltar to Moroccan Coast

  26. Phoenicians • Established colonies including Carthage • Eventually sailed north - Spain, Ireland, England • Huge demand for metals - gold and silver, copper and tin needed to turn copper into bronze, iron • Phoenicians most famed export were brilliantly dyed textiles - murex - Phoenicia from Greek - purple dye

  27. Mediterranean and Black Seas

  28. The Silk Road

  29. The Parthians • Controlled the Silk Road • Connected Rome in the West with India and China in the East

  30. The Chinese • Supplied jade, porcelain, silk • Obtained spices and supplied rest of world • Silk road to Rome • Some claim they traded with South America • Pulled back in 15th century because of expense

  31. The Silk Road

  32. Mediterranean and Black Seas