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The Agricultural Revolution. Revolution=change. New farming Techniques. Throughout the early 1700s new technologies helped improve farming and increased food production. Iron Plow. Population Explosion. More food=bigger population. Estimated population statistics:

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new farming techniques
New farming Techniques

Throughout the early 1700s new technologies helped improve farming and increased food production

Iron Plow

population explosion
Population Explosion

More food=bigger population

Estimated population statistics:

Britain in 1700: 5 million

Britain in 1800: 9 million

Almost Double!!

What other time period does this population increase remind you of?

Neolithic Revolution

industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution

It begins in Great Britain because they have plenty of natural resources and many natural waterways

  • The IndustrialRevolution is the name given to the massive social, economic and technological change in 18th and 19th century Great Britain. It commenced with the introduction of steam power, fueled primarily by coal.
industrial change
Industrial Change

The Industrial revolution refers to the shift from simple hand tools to complex machines AND from human & animal power to steam power.


People live and work in small farming villages


People move from farming villages to new city centers based on industry- urbanization


Cities become overcrowded with working families

causes of industrialization
Causes of Industrialization

Availability of natural resources for fuel (coal)

2. Capital (surplus money to invest)

3. Technological inventions and energy


Capital (money for investing) allowed for new inventions:

Steam Engine- powered machines without needing to be next to a moving water source. Heats water by burning coal.

Spinning Jenny- Quickly produces thread.

transportation systems
Transportation Systems

Inventions allowed for the production of large quantities of product but transportation was slow.

Turnpikes- private roads that charged $$ to transport on. Example I-90

Steamships- ships powered with steam could move faster and reliably without wind. Railroads- steam powered locomotives could carry large loads quickly across vast distances. The first major line laid in 1830. Within 40 years lines crossed Europe and America.

effects of industrialization
Effects of Industrialization


Loss of Traditional way of Life

New Economic Systems


1 urbanization
1. Urbanization

Movement of people to cities to find work.

What do you already know about the conditions in these factories and cities?

Child Labor

Dark, unsafe factories

Long hours and little pay

Poor living conditions

origin of textile factory workers
Origin of textile factory workers

What is wrong with this process?

Too slow and too expensive. Only small quantities could be produced keeping cost high

origin of textile factory workers1
Origin of Textile Factory Workers

New inventions were bought by rich capitalists. The machines turned out cheaper and better products than the farm workers.

Thus the workers become disposable.

2 loss of traditional way of life
2. Loss of Traditional Way of life

The customs and traditions of the farms and past are replaced by the “new” city ways. Traditional ways are blended or lost as a result


Which condition is most necessary to the process of industrialization in a society

Dependence on subsistence agriculture

Creation of a one-crop economy

Availability of investment capital

Capture of foreign lands


Before a nation can begin to industrialize, that nation must first develop

A democratic government

A rigid class structure

A strong religious foundation

An adequate food supply

  • -Europeans sought new markets for their goods.-Many Europeans migrated to the cities in search of jobs.-European middle class gained political power.What was the major cause of these changes in Europe?1. Industrial Revolution
  • 2. rise of feudalism
  • 3. Congress of Vienna
  • 4. French Revolution
3 new economic systems
3. New Economic Systems

Shift from a traditional economic system based on bartering and trade to mostly money based exchanges.




  • Wealthy people (entrepreneurs) and companies will invest money, capital, into factories
  • Entrepreneurs believed they would make money off of the growing demand.
  • The idea is it takes money to make money

In a Capitalist society the factories are owned by private investors who’s goal is to make money.

Adam Smith believed in Laissez Faire economics based on supply and demand. If the demand is high and the investors are making money, they will make more supply.


Some believed that the goal of society was “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of citizens.

Utopians want to achieve this by creating communities where everything is shared and everyone works together to produce necessary items, food, supplies, etc.


Form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole.

What you need to know:a communist society has no class structure because everyone is equal and all property is shared.

karl marx
Karl Marx
  • Known as the father of communism
  • Teamed up with Friedrich Engels to write, “The Communist Manifesto”.
  • Marx believes that history is just a history of class struggles: between the “haves” and “have-nots”
haves and have nots
Haves and Have-nots



Proletariat: they own nothing and work for the bourgeoisie

The workers

The proletariats will struggle against the bosses

Bourgeoisie: they own the means of production and control society

The Entrepreneurs and investors

The bosses

bourgeoisie boss
Bourgeoisie= Boss

You tell me:

Who are the Bourgeoisie?

proletariat workers
Proletariat= Workers

You tell me:

Who are the Proletariat?


Which revolution inspired Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels to express their ideas in The Communist Manifesto?






According to the theories of Karl Marx, history can be viewed as a

succession of famines that result in the destruction of civilizations

repeating cycle of imperialism and colonialism

listing of the accomplishments of the ruling classes

continuous struggle between economic classes


A major result of the Industrial Revolution was the

1. concentration of workers in urban areas

2. increased desire of the wealthy class to share its power

3. formation of powerful craft guilds

4. control of agricultural production by governments

stages of communism
Stages of Communism

According to Marx, history has been the story of the struggle between the workers and bosses.


Factories are built

Factories need workers



1 capital
#1 Capital

Remember one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution is capital, or surplus money used for investment.

4 conflict
#4 Conflict

Proletariat vs. Bourgeoisie

5 communist revolution
#5 Communist Revolution

The proletariat will rise above the bourgeoisie and set up a communist society: class less and shared property.

Karl Marx: Father of Communism

communist nations in history
Communist Nations in History
  • USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
  • China
  • North Korea
  • Vietnam
  • Cuba

Some saw the new industrialization as a negative for society.

Thomas Malthus believed the growing population would outgrow the food supply.

“Poverty and misery are unavoidable because population is increasing faster then the food supply”

David Ricardo felt there was no hope for the working class to escape poverty unless they limit their family sizes. He created the Iron Law of Wages.


“The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains…Workers of the world, unite!”This statement was made in response to conditions resulting from the1. Protestant Reformation

2. Counter-Reformation

3. Commercial Revolution

4. Industrial Revolution


“Revolution will occur more and more frequently in the industrialized nations as the proletariat struggles to overcome the abuses of the capitalist system.”This quotation reflects the ideas of1. Charles Darwin

2. Karl Marx

3. NiccoloMachiavelli

4. John Locke


According to Karl Marx, history is the record of the1. granting of more political liberties to all people

2. struggle between classes in society

3. wars and conflicts between national leaders

4. increasing prosperity brought about by industrialization


A main idea of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles’ Communist Manifesto is that the proletariat1. would need foreign help to achieve its revolutionary ends

2. had to cooperate with the capitalists to gain economic rewards

3. should allow the capitalists to control the means of production

4. must unite to overthrow the capitalist class


A major result of the Industrial Revolution was the1. concentration of workers in urban areas

2. increased desire of the wealthy class to share its power

3. formation of powerful craft guilds

4. control of agricultural production by governments