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Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution)

Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution). Changes. Permanent settlements due to agriculture Many institutions develop (religion, economy, education, etc). Written language is developed to keep track of harvest, trade, religious events, etc Specialized labor develops

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Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution)

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  1. Neolithic Revolution(Agricultural Revolution)

  2. Changes • Permanent settlements due to agriculture • Many institutions develop (religion, economy, education, etc). • Written language is developed to keep track of harvest, trade, religious events, etc • Specialized labor develops • City planning begins

  3. River Valley Civilizations (Egypt) • Ancient Egypt around the Nile • Isolated due to deserts, cataracts, and bodies of water (leads to unique culture) • Culture based heavily around the river and the dead (river is source of all life; pyramids/mummification show cult of the dead)

  4. River Valley Civilizations (China) • In China they developed along the Yellow (Huang He) and Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Rivers • Shang Dynatsy begins elder worship • Shang Di is the god (oracle bones) • First writing; symbol language vs phonetic language • Zhou (Jo) Dynasty begins the Mandate of Heaven, which turns into the Dynastic Cycle • The economic system turns into feudalism

  5. River Valley Civilizations (Indus) • Modern day Pakistan • Called Harappan Civilization (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are the major settlements) • Brick walled homes, drainage systems, planned cities, plumbing/sewage, streets on the grid system • Aryan invasion brings Sanskrit, caste system, and beginning of Hinduism

  6. River Valley Civilizations (Mesopotamia) • Land between 2 river (Tigris and Euphrates) – Modern day Iraq • Fertile Crescent • Not many natural barrier (frequent invasions) • Sumerians – smelting; wheel, sail, and plow; ziggurats; cuneiform; numerical system based on 60

  7. (Mesopotamia continued) • Phoenicians – Developed the alphabet; great seafaring traders • Assyrians – great communication network and military strategist; used chariots • Persians – Tolerant conquerors; roads; standing army; standardized coined money

  8. Hammurabi's Code of Laws • First ever written body of law • Displayed in public so all may know the law and what is expected

  9. World Religions (Hinduism) • No official start date or founder; developed slowly over centuries through the combination of many ideas • Karma, Reincarnation, and the Caste system are important characteristics • Sacred texts: Upanishads and Vedas

  10. World Religions (Shinto) • Very old religion with no founder • Traditional religion of Japan, spread to other parts of Asia • Many deities • Animistic – nature and cleanliness • Kami – local spirits found in nature • Amaterasu – sun goddess who gave birth to the imperial family (Japan is land of the rising sun)

  11. World Religions (Buddhism) • Reform movement of Hinduism • Everything suffers because they desire, if you end desire you end suffering, to end desire follow the 8 fold path or middle way • Started by Siddhartha Gautama • Disagreed with the caste system in Hinduism • Sacred texts: Sutras and Tripitaka

  12. World Religions (Taoism) • Founder – Lao Tzu • Focused on harmony and balance in nature (yin and yang) • Balance of opposites • “The Way Man” • Sacred text: Tao Te Ching

  13. World Religions (Confucianism) • Founded by Confucius (also known as Master Kung) • Focused on education, family, and sometimes led to ancestor worship • Scholars most highly revered in this society • Foundation of Chinese society for centuries • Sacred text: Analects

  14. World Religions (Judaism) • Monotheistic • Yahweh is the only god • Religion founded by Abraham • Israelites in the old testament • Sacred text: Torah

  15. World Religions (Islam) • Monotheistic • Founder is Mohammed the final prophet • Very similar to Judaism, many of the same characters all the way back to Abraham • Allah is the one true god • Sacred text: Koran

  16. Ancient Greece • Developed as independent city-states due to rugged terrain (bands of mountains), inlets of water, islands, and peninsulas • Mycenaeans (Peloponnesian Peninsula) and Minoans (island of Crete) were the earliest settlers • Contrast Sparta and Athens • Sparta was a strong military state; all life and education focused on military and honor • Athens had a more liberal outlook; people valued the arts; Athens is the birthplace of democracy

  17. Ancient Greece (continued) • Persian Wars • Battle of Marathon (attack by King Darius) • Battle of Thermopylae (revenge by Xerxes, fails overall) • Battle of Salami (Greek naval victory; defeats Persians) • Peloponnesian Wars • Athens vs Sparta • Long Spartan siege of Athens that lasts until Athenian plague and their loss at Syracuse • Alexander • Macedonian who, with his father Philip, conquers Greece, and then conquers Persia, Egypt, and all the way to the Indus • Greek culture from this time is known as Hellenistic

  18. Ancient Rome • Legendarily founded by Romulus on Remus, Tiber River. • Greeks, Latins (herders; settled on Palatine, one of Romes famous 7 hills), and Etruscans (metal workers and engineers; built well known arches) were the earliest settlers

  19. Rome continued • Forum – central meeting place of the government • Struggle between Patricians (wealthy aristocracy) and Plebeians (poor/working class) • 12 Tables – Publicly displayed laws • Balanced Government – 2 Consuls, a Senate, and Assemblies [in times of crisis they could appoint dictators for a 6 month cycle]

  20. Rome continued • Army was strong because: • Land owners had to fight • 10 yrs in the military required for public office • Organized into legions (5000) • Broken down into centuries (80 men)

  21. Rome continued • The conquered • Became Romans • Given all rights of citizenship except the vote • Treated as allies

  22. Rome continued • Punic Wars – 3 wars with Carthage (Hannibal lead them) – fought over control of Sicily and Mediterranean trade routes • By 70 BC the empire stretched from Spain to Turkey • Julius Caesar takes control following tumult caused by growing gap between rich and poor (Latifundia) • Comes to power because he is a popular, accomplished general; and has help of the 1st Triumvirate (himself, Pompey, and Crassus)

  23. Rome continued • His triumvirate turns on him, and he ends up seizing total control • Make reforms to help the poor • Assassinated in the senate for being too powerful and helping the poor • 2nd Triumvirate comes to power: Ocatvion, Mark Anthony, and Lepidus • Rivalry starts between Octavion and Mark Anthony (Anthony is out with Cleopatra, winning wars, and “trying to rule/take over Rome from Egypt”) • Octavion takes total power

  24. Rome continued • PaxRomana - Peace, roads, security, and a stable civil service that lasts from one leader to the next for over 150 years • Jerusalem is under Roman control during the life of Jesus; Jews and Romans threatened by growing popularity; Paul spread Christianity easily due to PaxRomana; Diaspora when they are kicked out of Jerusalem; a time of persecution; Edict of Milan grants freedom of Religion in 313 AD

  25. Rome continued • Decline: • Bad leaders who let trade be disrupted • The rich spent wildly • Soil became overworked, lacking nutrients • Minted coins with less silver • Worse economy = not being able to afford defense • Attacks from Germanic tribes • Mercenaries rather than full time soldiers

  26. Rome continued • Empire splits: Western half in Rome; Eastern half to Constantinople (Byzantium) • The loss of culture as immigration and other cultures creep into Roman life • Germanic tribes and the Huns under Atilla cause all sorts of trouble

  27. Rome continued • Mosiacs – tile • Frescoes – murals • Romance languages – languages based on Latin (from Rome) Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, and Romanian • Arches, domes, aquaducts, bridges, and roads

  28. Middle Ages • After the fall of the Roman Empire changes take place: • Urban to Rural; Freedom to Serfdom; Public Policy to Rule on the Fief; Multiple Religions to One Religion; Centralized Government to Decentralized (Manorial) Government; Manufacturing and Trade to Self-Sufficient Agricultural Units; Monetary System to Bartering; Jury to Trail by Combat/Ordeal; Cultural and Artistic Flourishing to Stagnation; PaxRomana to Constant Warfare

  29. Middle Ages continued • Justinian’s Code from the Eastern Empire eventually has an affect on Western Europe • 1066 – Battle of Hastings – William of Normandy (France) takes over England – brings feudalism to England • Doomsday Book – census to know what all he owns, and how much to tax • Bayeux Tapestry – tells story of Battle of Hastings

  30. Middle Ages continued • Henry II (grandson of William) has problems with Thomas Beckett revolving around lay investiture, and church vs government power • Kind John – son of Henry II – forced to sign Magna Carta…(shout it)…because the kind had too much power [first steps towards more power for the people and less for the monarchy]

  31. Middle Ages continued • Edict of Milan • Clovis converts in 500 AD • Charles the Hammer wins at Tours stopping Islam into Europe • Pepin the Short – donation of Pepin – Papal States • Charlemagne – crowned “King of the Romans” on Christmas Day 800 AD – sets precedent for Pope blessing; close relationship between European rulers and Catholic churhc

  32. Middle Ages continued • Popes powerful tools • Excommunication – kick a person out of church (thought to mean you go to hell) • Interdict – basically excommunication for an entire region (can be done to punish a landowner) • Church major land owner • It is feudalism, so land equals power • Tithing • Mandatory 10% tax

  33. Islam and the Crusades • Branch of Judeo-Christian belief system • Abraham, Moses, and Jesus in Koran • Muhammad is final prophet; Koran based on word revealed to him • Allah is one true god • Strict monotheism • 5 Pillars of Faith: Affirmation, Prayer, Almsgiving, Fasting, and Pilgrimage • Theocracy

  34. Islam and the Crusades • Crusades were wars between European Christians and Muslims in the Middle East over control of Jerusalem (the Holy Land) • Europeans never regained control, but they did open up trade routes to the east, rediscover old texts/works of art preserved by Muslims, began banking and trading, and all of this helped to lead to the Renaissance

  35. Renaissance • Begins in Italy – physically houses old works; in the middle of trading routes set up during Crusades • Patrons – rich families hiring people to make art full time (sign of prestige, but allowed artists to work on craft) • Humanism – focus on worth of man, even if not directly related to church – especially rationality • Individualism – man has a right to, and ought to be self reliant

  36. Renaissance continued • Art becomes more 3-D with use of perspective and vanishing point • Vernacular helps spread Renaissance ideals as people learn to read in the language they speak, rather than having to learn Latin (the language of education) • The printing press also helps disseminate information • Renaissance leads to rise of democratic ideals, age of exploration, and Scientific Revolution

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