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Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution) PowerPoint Presentation
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Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution)

Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution)

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Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution)

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  1. Neolithic Revolution(Agricultural Revolution)

  2. Changes • Permanent settlements due to agriculture • Many institutions develop (religion, economy, education, etc). • Written language is developed to keep track of harvest, trade, religious events, etc • Specialized labor develops • City planning begins

  3. River Valley Civilizations (Egypt) • Ancient Egypt around the Nile • Isolated due to deserts, cataracts, and bodies of water (leads to unique culture) • Culture based heavily around the river and the dead (river is source of all life; pyramids/mummification show cult of the dead)

  4. River Valley Civilizations (China) • In China they developed along the Yellow (Huang He) and Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Rivers • Shang Dynatsy begins elder worship • Shang Di is the god (oracle bones) • First writing; symbol language vs phonetic language • Zhou (Jo) Dynasty begins the Mandate of Heaven, which turns into the Dynastic Cycle • The economic system turns into feudalism

  5. River Valley Civilizations (Indus) • Modern day Pakistan • Called Harappan Civilization (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are the major settlements) • Brick walled homes, drainage systems, planned cities, plumbing/sewage, streets on the grid system • Aryan invasion brings Sanskrit, caste system, and beginning of Hinduism

  6. River Valley Civilizations (Mesopotamia) • Land between 2 river (Tigris and Euphrates) – Modern day Iraq • Fertile Crescent • Not many natural barrier (frequent invasions) • Sumerians – smelting; wheel, sail, and plow; ziggurats; cuneiform; numerical system based on 60

  7. (Mesopotamia continued) • Phoenicians – Developed the alphabet; great seafaring traders • Assyrians – great communication network and military strategist; used chariots • Persians – Tolerant conquerors; roads; standing army; standardized coined money

  8. Hammurabi's Code of Laws • First ever written body of law • Displayed in public so all may know the law and what is expected

  9. World Religions (Hinduism) • No official start date or founder; developed slowly over centuries through the combination of many ideas • Karma, Reincarnation, and the Caste system are important characteristics • Sacred texts: Upanishads and Vedas

  10. World Religions (Shinto) • Very old religion with no founder • Traditional religion of Japan, spread to other parts of Asia • Many deities • Animistic – nature and cleanliness • Kami – local spirits found in nature • Amaterasu – sun goddess who gave birth to the imperial family (Japan is land of the rising sun)

  11. World Religions (Buddhism) • Reform movement of Hinduism • Everything suffers because they desire, if you end desire you end suffering, to end desire follow the 8 fold path or middle way • Started by Siddhartha Gautama • Disagreed with the caste system in Hinduism • Sacred texts: Sutras and Tripitaka

  12. World Religions (Taoism) • Founder – Lao Tzu • Focused on harmony and balance in nature (yin and yang) • Balance of opposites • “The Way Man” • Sacred text: Tao Te Ching

  13. World Religions (Confucianism) • Founded by Confucius (also known as Master Kung) • Focused on education, family, and sometimes led to ancestor worship • Scholars most highly revered in this society • Foundation of Chinese society for centuries • Sacred text: Analects

  14. World Religions (Judaism) • Monotheistic • Yahweh is the only god • Religion founded by Abraham • Israelites in the old testament • Sacred text: Torah

  15. World Religions (Islam) • Monotheistic • Founder is Mohammed the final prophet • Very similar to Judaism, many of the same characters all the way back to Abraham • Allah is the one true god • Sacred text: Koran

  16. Ancient Greece • Developed as independent city-states due to rugged terrain (bands of mountains), inlets of water, islands, and peninsulas • Mycenaeans (Peloponnesian Peninsula) and Minoans (island of Crete) were the earliest settlers • Contrast Sparta and Athens • Sparta was a strong military state; all life and education focused on military and honor • Athens had a more liberal outlook; people valued the arts; Athens is the birthplace of democracy

  17. Ancient Greece (continued) • Persian Wars • Battle of Marathon (attack by King Darius) • Battle of Thermopylae (revenge by Xerxes, fails overall) • Battle of Salami (Greek naval victory; defeats Persians) • Peloponnesian Wars • Athens vs Sparta • Long Spartan siege of Athens that lasts until Athenian plague and their loss at Syracuse • Alexander • Macedonian who, with his father Philip, conquers Greece, and then conquers Persia, Egypt, and all the way to the Indus • Greek culture from this time is known as Hellenistic

  18. Ancient Rome • Legendarily founded by Romulus on Remus, Tiber River. • Greeks, Latins (herders; settled on Palatine, one of Romes famous 7 hills), and Etruscans (metal workers and engineers; built well known arches) were the earliest settlers

  19. Rome continued • Forum – central meeting place of the government • Struggle between Patricians (wealthy aristocracy) and Plebeians (poor/working class) • 12 Tables – Publicly displayed laws • Balanced Government – 2 Consuls, a Senate, and Assemblies [in times of crisis they could appoint dictators for a 6 month cycle]

  20. Rome continued • Army was strong because: • Land owners had to fight • 10 yrs in the military required for public office • Organized into legions (5000) • Broken down into centuries (80 men)

  21. Rome continued • The conquered • Became Romans • Given all rights of citizenship except the vote • Treated as allies

  22. Rome continued • Punic Wars – 3 wars with Carthage (Hannibal lead them) – fought over control of Sicily and Mediterranean trade routes • By 70 BC the empire stretched from Spain to Turkey • Julius Caesar takes control following tumult caused by growing gap between rich and poor (Latifundia) • Comes to power because he is a popular, accomplished general; and has help of the 1st Triumvirate (himself, Pompey, and Crassus)

  23. Rome continued • His triumvirate turns on him, and he ends up seizing total control • Make reforms to help the poor • Assassinated in the senate for being too powerful and helping the poor • 2nd Triumvirate comes to power: Ocatvion, Mark Anthony, and Lepidus • Rivalry starts between Octavion and Mark Anthony (Anthony is out with Cleopatra, winning wars, and “trying to rule/take over Rome from Egypt”) • Octavion takes total power

  24. Rome continued • PaxRomana - Peace, roads, security, and a stable civil service that lasts from one leader to the next for over 150 years • Jerusalem is under Roman control during the life of Jesus; Jews and Romans threatened by growing popularity; Paul spread Christianity easily due to PaxRomana; Diaspora when they are kicked out of Jerusalem; a time of persecution; Edict of Milan grants freedom of Religion in 313 AD

  25. Rome continued • Decline: • Bad leaders who let trade be disrupted • The rich spent wildly • Soil became overworked, lacking nutrients • Minted coins with less silver • Worse economy = not being able to afford defense • Attacks from Germanic tribes • Mercenaries rather than full time soldiers

  26. Rome continued • Empire splits: Western half in Rome; Eastern half to Constantinople (Byzantium) • The loss of culture as immigration and other cultures creep into Roman life • Germanic tribes and the Huns under Atilla cause all sorts of trouble

  27. Rome continued • Mosiacs – tile • Frescoes – murals • Romance languages – languages based on Latin (from Rome) Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, and Romanian • Arches, domes, aquaducts, bridges, and roads

  28. Middle Ages • After the fall of the Roman Empire changes take place: • Urban to Rural; Freedom to Serfdom; Public Policy to Rule on the Fief; Multiple Religions to One Religion; Centralized Government to Decentralized (Manorial) Government; Manufacturing and Trade to Self-Sufficient Agricultural Units; Monetary System to Bartering; Jury to Trail by Combat/Ordeal; Cultural and Artistic Flourishing to Stagnation; PaxRomana to Constant Warfare

  29. Middle Ages continued • Justinian’s Code from the Eastern Empire eventually has an affect on Western Europe • 1066 – Battle of Hastings – William of Normandy (France) takes over England – brings feudalism to England • Doomsday Book – census to know what all he owns, and how much to tax • Bayeux Tapestry – tells story of Battle of Hastings

  30. Middle Ages continued • Henry II (grandson of William) has problems with Thomas Beckett revolving around lay investiture, and church vs government power • Kind John – son of Henry II – forced to sign Magna Carta…(shout it)…because the kind had too much power [first steps towards more power for the people and less for the monarchy]

  31. Middle Ages continued • Edict of Milan • Clovis converts in 500 AD • Charles the Hammer wins at Tours stopping Islam into Europe • Pepin the Short – donation of Pepin – Papal States • Charlemagne – crowned “King of the Romans” on Christmas Day 800 AD – sets precedent for Pope blessing; close relationship between European rulers and Catholic churhc

  32. Middle Ages continued • Popes powerful tools • Excommunication – kick a person out of church (thought to mean you go to hell) • Interdict – basically excommunication for an entire region (can be done to punish a landowner) • Church major land owner • It is feudalism, so land equals power • Tithing • Mandatory 10% tax

  33. Islam and the Crusades • Branch of Judeo-Christian belief system • Abraham, Moses, and Jesus in Koran • Muhammad is final prophet; Koran based on word revealed to him • Allah is one true god • Strict monotheism • 5 Pillars of Faith: Affirmation, Prayer, Almsgiving, Fasting, and Pilgrimage • Theocracy

  34. Islam and the Crusades • Crusades were wars between European Christians and Muslims in the Middle East over control of Jerusalem (the Holy Land) • Europeans never regained control, but they did open up trade routes to the east, rediscover old texts/works of art preserved by Muslims, began banking and trading, and all of this helped to lead to the Renaissance

  35. Renaissance • Begins in Italy – physically houses old works; in the middle of trading routes set up during Crusades • Patrons – rich families hiring people to make art full time (sign of prestige, but allowed artists to work on craft) • Humanism – focus on worth of man, even if not directly related to church – especially rationality • Individualism – man has a right to, and ought to be self reliant

  36. Renaissance continued • Art becomes more 3-D with use of perspective and vanishing point • Vernacular helps spread Renaissance ideals as people learn to read in the language they speak, rather than having to learn Latin (the language of education) • The printing press also helps disseminate information • Renaissance leads to rise of democratic ideals, age of exploration, and Scientific Revolution