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Adverb Clauses: Time, Cause, and Result

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  1. Adverb Clauses:Time, Cause, and Result Grammar 3 Lecture 2 EmanAlkatheery

  2. Transitions of sequence Transitions of sequence are words or phrases that relate a series of events or situations by order of occurrence. They are used in storytelling and description of processes. They are used with all verb tenses and sometimes followed by a comma. (Table 5.1., p. 202) Examples: First, second, now, then, finally, earlier, later, afterward, meanwhile, at that time, at that point, at the same time, after that EmanAlkatheery

  3. Transitions of sequence Example: First, a child will start smiling at its mother. Later, it will learn to tell the difference between people. After that, the child will begin to imitate its parents’ actions. Then it responds to human voices. Practice 1, p. 203 Eman Alkatheery

  4. Adverb Clauses Adverb clauses are used to show the relationship between ideas. An adverb clause begins with a subordinator. Types of Adverb Clauses: Time clauses: after, before, when, etc. Cause and effect clauses: since, because Contrast clauses: although, etc. Conditional clauses: if, etc. and others Eman Alkatheery

  5. Time Clauses Time clauses are used to relate actions or situations that occur at the same time or in a sequence. There are three types of time clauses: Future Time Present and Unspecified Time Past Time Eman Alkatheery

  6. Part 1 Clauses and Related Structures of Time: Future Time Eman Alkatheery

  7. Time ClausesFuture Time Time clauses are used to relate actions or situations that will occur at the same time or in a sequence in the future. The focus will be on the main (independent) clause. (Table 5.2., p. 204) ● × × Eman Alkatheery

  8. Time ClausesFuture Time The verb in the main clause can be in the simple future (will + v, OR be going to + v) or preceded by a modal auxiliary (can, may, should + v). The verb in the dependent clause is in the simple present, or present perfect but not the future. The present perfect tense is used to emphasize the completion of the first action. Eman Alkatheery

  9. Time ClausesFuture Time Examples: After the baby finishes eating, we’ll put her to bed. You should not put her to bed until her hair has dried. When her hair has dried, you can put her to bed. I will wait here until they come. Nasser must go home after he finishes his work. Eman Alkatheery

  10. Time ClausesFuture Time I’m going to bathe her justas soon as she’s finished eating.* I’ll give her a bath justbefore I put her to bed. * Once she goes to bed, we may be able to relax a while. ** * The expressions (as soon as) and ( just + a subordinator) give the strongest sense of immediacy. ** (Once) emphasizes the idea of (not before). Eman Alkatheery

  11. Time ClausesFuture Time Only (while – as ) are used with the present continuous to emphasize that an action is in progress. While I am waiting for her hair to dry, I might read her a story. As I am travelling in Europe next summer, I will save money by staying in cheap hotels. Eman Alkatheery

  12. Time ClausesFuture Time Time clauses can also be used to specify a time in the future when something will be happening or will be finished. In general, the focus of these sentences will be on the main clause. (Table 5.3., p. 205) By the time she gets up, she will have slept for ten hours. Eman Alkatheery

  13. Time ClausesFuture Time The dependent clause is in the present, and the main clause is in the future perfect (progressive).The future perfect (progressive) is used to emphasize that an action will be completed before a certain time in the future. It is most often used in sentences with (by or when). When she wakes up, her father will already have left for work. Eman Alkatheery

  14. Time Phrases The prepositions by and within are often used with the future perfect. By is used with an ending time, and within is used with a period of time. By 9:00, she will have been sleeping for several hours. Within an hour, she will have finished her breakfast. Eman Alkatheery

  15. Placement and Punctuationof Adverb Clauses and Phrases Adverb clauses and phrases come before or after the independent clause in a sentence. (Table 5.4., p. 206) If the time clause or phrase comes at the beginning of the sentence, a comma is placed after it. If the sentence starts with the independent clause, no commas are used. Eman Alkatheery

  16. Placement and Punctuationof Adverb Clauses and Phrases Example: We will leave before the baby wakes up. Before the baby wakes up, we will leave. After the baby’s nap, we will leave. We will leave after the baby’s nap. Eman Alkatheery

  17. Placement and Punctuationof Adverb Clauses and Phrases Other time expressions such as adverbs of frequency come between a subject and a verb or between verbs, but they never separate a verb from its direct object. Before the baby’s nap, we always feed him. Before the baby takes a nap, we always feed him. Practice 3, p. 206 Eman Alkatheery

  18. Part 2 Clauses and Related Structures of Time: Present and Unspecified Time Eman Alkatheery

  19. Time ClausesPresent Time Time clauses are used to relate actions or situations that occur at the same time or in a sequence. ( Table 5.5, p. 212) These activities may occur habitually, or may be occurring at the moment of speaking. The verbs in both clauses are in the present. However, the focus is on the verb of the main clause. Eman Alkatheery

  20. Time ClausesPresent Time When/Whenever Both subordinators mean ( any time). They join two actions that happen one immediately after the other. These subordinators come with the earlier event. When people work together, they can accomplish much more. Whenever I see her, I say hello. When(ever) Mark becomes angry, his nose gets red. Eman Alkatheery

  21. Time ClausesPresent Time After, before, as soon as, once, until, up to the time that These subordinators are used to join events that occur in sequence. The verb in the dependent clause is either in the simple present or present perfect. People settle in one area before they develop agriculture. Eman Alkatheery

  22. Time ClausesPresent Time By the time a pregnant woman reaches her fifth month, she starts feeling her baby’s kicks. Once more people have begun to farm, a food surplus often develops. There is very little commerce until the village has grown. After the housekeeper cleans the house,she cooks the lunch. Eman Alkatheery

  23. Time ClausesPresent Time As, While They are used to join two actions that happen at the same time. The present continuous can be used in the dependent clause to emphasize the continuous nature of the activity. The present continuous may also be used in the main clause. As the population increases, a need for technology develops. Eman Alkatheery

  24. Time ClausesPresent Time While villages are growing, their societies become more complex. In some societies, while men are hunting, women are working in the field. As children grow, they develop several communication skills. While you learn a new language, you learn its culture. Eman Alkatheery

  25. Time ClausesPresent Time Since It is used to join an earlier action to an action in progress. The verb in the adverb clause can be in the simple past or the present perfect. However, the main clause is in the present perfect or present perfect progressive. Societies have been developing since the first humans walked on the Earth. Commerce has increased steadily eversince people have lived in communities. Practice 1, p. 213 Eman Alkatheery

  26. Part 3 Clauses and Related Structures of Cause and Result Eman Alkatheery

  27. Adverb Clauses and RelatedStructures of Cause and Result Different structures are used to relate ideas that show cause and result. This relationship can be expressed through: (Table, 5.6., p. 220) Subordinators ( Adverb clauses): Because, since, etc. Prepositions ( phrases): Due to, because of, etc. Transitions: Consequently, as a result, etc. Eman Alkatheery

  28. Adverb Clauses of Cause and Result Because, due to the fact that, and since: These subordinators are used in adverb clauses to combine causes with results. These linking words are attached to the cause. Because is used in both written and spoken English, dueto the fact is formal, and since is less formal. Because he was a dynamic speaker, crowds always gathered to hear Martin Luther King. Crowds always gathered to hear Martin Luther King, Jr., due to the fact that he was a dynamic speaker. Eman Alkatheery

  29. Adverb Clauses of Cause and Result Crowds always gathered to hear Martin Luther King since he was a dynamic speaker. Janice missed her favourite TV show because she got home late. Since the bus was late, I missed Dr. Fatima's lecture. (Complex sentence) Dr. Smith won a Nobel Prize due to the fact that he discovered a cure for Alzheimer. I did not study for the exam since I lost my book. EmanAlkatheery

  30. Phrases of Cause and Result Due to, because of, as a result of, owing to These expressions are followed by a noun, a noun phrase, or a gerund. Becauseof his dynamism, crowds always gathered to hear Martin Luther King. People still admire Dr. King due to his amazing accomplishments. As a result of his carelessness, Ahmad did not pass the physics course. Owing to her aggressive behavior, kids don’t like to play with Sarah in the park. Eman Alkatheery

  31. Transitions of Cause and Result Hence, consequently, as a result, therefore, as a consequent, thus Like other transitions, they can start a new sentence, or combine two clauses in one sentence. If it is used to start a new sentence, the transition is followed by a comma. However, if it is used to combine two clauses in one sentence, the transition is preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma. Thus and hence are used in formal English. The others are used in both formal and informal English. Eman Alkatheery

  32. Transitions of Cause and Result Ghandi was respected throughout India; as a result, he was given the name Mahatma, meaning “Great Lord.” Ghandi was respected throughout India. Hence, he was given the name Mahatma, meaning “Great Lord.” The company had many losses last year. Consequently, many employees were fired. A strong snow storm hit the city; therefore, schools are closed today. (Compound sentence) Practice 2. p. 221. Practices 3& 4. p. 222. Eman Alkatheery

  33. Part 4 Clauses and Related Structures of Time: Past Time Eman Alkatheery

  34. Clauses and Related Structures of Time: Past Time Clauses and phrases are used to show the relationship between an earlier event to a later one. The past perfect (continuous) tense is generally used with the earlier event.; it can never be used with the later event. (Table 5.7, p. 227) In conversational English, the simple past is often used instead of the past perfect in sentences with after, before, and until.However, in written English, after the time frame is established by the past perfect (progressive), writers can switch to the simple past. Eman Alaktheery

  35. Clauses of Time:Past Time Before, by the time (that), until These linking words come with the later event. The verb of the time clause is in the simple past. Before the war began, American colonists had already been rebelling for several years. By the time that the British brought more troops to the colonies, the rebellion had already spread. Until the British instituted these taxes, most colonies had been loyal to England. Eman Alaktheery

  36. Clauses of Time:Past Time After It is used with the earlier event. The verb of the time clause is in the past perfect. Adverbs such as already, just, hardly, recently, and scarcely are frequently used with the past perfect. Fights broke out after the British had passed a series of taxes. After the university had announced 2012 scholarships, 340 students applied to it. Eman Alaktheery

  37. Clauses of Time:Past Time • When It comes with the later event and the verb is in the simple past. The past perfect must be used if there is a distinct time difference. If not, the simple past is used. Compare: • It began to rain when I went outside. • It had begun to rain when I went outside. • The rebellion had already started when the British passed new taxes. Eman Alaktheery

  38. Phrases of Time:Past Time By, up to, within These prepositions are used in time phrases to show the time relationship between the main clause and the time phrase. By 1776, colonists had already been rebelling for several years. (not later than) Upto 1776, they had not officially declared war. (till) Within seven years, the Americans had gained independence. (during a period of time) Eman Alkatheery

  39. Clauses of Time:Past Time Clauses and phrases can also link events that happened at approximately the same time in the past. In this case, the simple past orthe past continuous are used with the adverb clause. (Table 5.8, p. 228) Eman Alkatheery

  40. Clauses of Time:Past Time When, whenever, as soon as When and assoonas are used to show a direct connection in the time of occurrence of the two events. Whenever is used to describe habitual occurrences. Fighting began when the British tried to collect more taxes. As soon as colonists learned of the fighting, rebellion spread rapidly. Eman Alkatheery

  41. Clauses of Time:Past Time • As, while, when The past continuous is often used with while and as to describe past actions in progress. When is used with a clause in the simple past to describe an action that occurred while another event was in progress. • While colonists in Boston were fighting the British, colonists in the South were organizing the army. • Colonists in Virginia were planning their own revolt when they received news of the fighting in Boston. Eman Alkatheery

  42. Phrases of Time:Past Time During It is used with phrases to express that the event in the main clause happened in this period of time. They received news of the fighting in Boston during a meeting of anti-British colonists. Practice 1, p.228 Practice 2, p. 229 Eman Alkatheery