Things to Know • In conditional clauses, the verbs can be indicative or subjunctive. • ~ si ~ introduces these clauses. • “If this, then that” a.k.a. the condition and result
2 parts of the conditional sentence • PROTASIS APODOSIS • condition result If it is raining then the grass is wet. If you saw him then he must have been here.
3 Categories • simple conditions (factual or logical implications) • present tense • past tense • future conditions • "future more vivid“ (simple) • "future less vivid“ (unreal) • contrafactual conditions (unreal) • "present contrary-to-fact" • "past contrary-to-fact"
SIMPLE CONDITIONS PROTASIS APODOSIS CONDITION future indic. future indic. FUTURE MORE VIVID present indic. present indic. PRESENT SIMPLE past indic. past indic. PAST SIMPLE • UNREAL CONDITIONS PROTASIS APODOSIS CONDITION present subj. present subj. FUTURE LESS VIVID imperf. subj. imperf. subj. PRES. CTF plpf. subj. plpf. subj. PAST CTF
Simple • Present si vales, gaudeo. If you are well, I am pleased. • Future (future more vivid) Si hoc faciet, beatus ero. If he does this, I will be happy. • Past Si hoc fecit, beatus eram. If he did this, I was happy.
Past When an unreal condition pertains to a past condition that was not fulfilled, it is called the "past contrary-to-fact" condition. "If George had been there, we would have won the game." Example: si illud dixisses, erravisses. If you had said that, you would have been wrong.
Present When an unreal condition pertains to a present condition that is not being fulfilled, it is called the "present contrary-to-fact" condition. Example: si filius meus viveret, non lugerem. If my son were alive, I would not be mourning.
Future When the protasis applies to a future event, these conditions are called "future-less-vivid," "future unreal" or "should-would" condition. "If you should come tomorrow, then I would be happy." Example: si illud iterum feceris, tē puniam. If you do that again, I shall punish you.
Nisi • The negative form of si • Introduces conditional clauses that are negative. Example: nisi Imperator novas copias miserit, opprimemur. If the emperor does NOT send reinforcements, we shall be overwhelmed.
2 Steps to identify your clause • 1. Find the protasis. • 2. Establish whether the mood is subjunctive or indicative. a. If the mood of the verb in the protasis is indicative, then you have one of the simple or open conditions; find the tense. i. If it is future, the condition is future-more- vivid (also called the future real). ii. If it is present tense, the condition is present simple or open. iii. If it is a past tense, the condition is the past simple or open. b. If it is subjunctive, find the tense. i. If the tense is present, the condition is future- less- vivid (also called "should-would" or future unreal). ii. If the tense is imperfect, the condition is present contrary-to- fact. iii. If the tense is pluperfect, the condition is past contrary-to- fact.