Early Birds and Night Owls Unit 4
Discussion “The Time is Right” p. 28 • When is the best time to … • Exercise? • Listen to music? • Study for an Exam? • Speak English?
Grammar – Reduced Adverb Clauses p. 29 • I ran into an old friend. • (When?) • While I was walking to class, I ran into an old friend. • Adverb clause describing when the action happened. • I ate breakfast. • (When?) • Before I left for class, I ate breakfast.
Reducing Adverb clauses to adverb phrases • Some adverb clauses can be reduced to adverb phrases • Clauses with after, before, while, and since • When the subject of the adverb clause and the main clause are the same. While I was sitting in class, I fell asleep. (Subject the same) While Ann was sitting in class, she fell asleep. (Subject the same) While I was sitting in class, Ann fell asleep. (Subject different)
To form a reduced adverb phrase • Clause with form of be • While I was sitting in class, I fell asleep. • Omit the subject and the form of be • While sitting in class, I fell asleep. • Clause without form of be • After he finished his homework, Peter went to bed. • Omit the subject • Change verb to present participle (-ing) • After finishing his homework, Peter went to bed.
Practice • Before I came to class, I had a cup of coffee. • Since I have come here, I have learned a lot of English. • Before you ask the librarian for help, you should try to find the materials yourself. • While Jack was trying to sleep last night, a mosquito kept buzzing in his ear. • Alex hurt his back while he was chopping wood. • You should always read a contract before you sign your name. • Before the waiter came to our table, I had already made up my mind to order shrimp. • The Wilsons have experienced many changes in their lifestyle since they adopted twins. • After I heard Mary describe how cold it gets in Minnesota in the winter, I decided not to go there for my vacation in January.
Vocabulary (Phrasal Verbs)“Energy and sleep” p.29 • Become calm • Find more energy • Go to bed • Lose all your energy • Fall asleep • Take it easy • Stay for the night • Go quickly • Do you ever burn out from too much work? • How do you calm down after an argument? • How do you chill out after a rough day? • Do you drop off quickly after you go to bed? • How do you perk up when you feel sleepy? • Do you race off as soon as class is over? • How often do you sleep over at a friend’s? • What time do you turn in on the weekend?
Listening “Chilling out” p. 30 • What do you do to cope with stress? • Call a friend • Do vigorous exercise • Do yoga • Get a massage • Listen to music • Take a hot bath • Vent your feelings
Sean • Too many responsibilities • Calls home • Lisa • Too little time • Kids sleep over with friends / quiet dinner with husband • Victor • Too much traffic • Leaves home early before traffic is too heavy
Vocabulary p. 32 Drift off Take a power nap Feel drowsy Be fast asleep Be wide awake Nod off Be sound asleep Have a sleepless night Toss and turn Sleep like a log
Grammar “Adverb Clauses” p. 33 • Adverb Clauses of Condition • If, whether or not, even if, in case, in the event that, unless, only if, as long as all introduce an adverb clause of condition. • If it rains, the street gets wet. • Condition – rain / result – wet street • Whether or not, Even if – express that the result will happen under either condition • I will go swimming tomorrow whether or not it’s cold. • I’ll go swimming tomorrow even if it’s cold. • (result – go swimming / condition – it’s hot or cold)
In case, in the event that- express that the condition probably won’t happen but in the small possibility it does, this is the result • I’ll be at my uncle’s house in case you need to reach me. • I set two alarms in the event that one of them doesn’t go off. • Unless – express that the result will not happen under this condition • I’ll go swimming tomorrow unless it’s cold. • (If it’s cold, I won’t go swimming.) • Only if, as long as, provided that – the result will only happen under this condition. • I’ll go swimming tomorrow only if it’s hot. • I’ll go swimming tomorrow as long as it’s hot.
Adverb clause of reason • Considering that – expresses a reason that the action happens • Considering that most people need 8 hours of sleep, I’m lucky that I only need 6.
Listening “I had the wildest Dream” p. 34 • Sergio • Meaning • Kate • Dream