Essential grammar Week 6 – Clauses Participial phrases By Peiling Hsia
Contents: • A quick review of relative clauses • Adverb Clause - Time Clause • Participial phrases • Reducing dependent clauses
A quick review of relative clause 由關係代名詞所引導的子句 基本核心就是在處理 如何避免名詞重覆 There are now three options for direct flights between Vancouver and Hong Kong, and the three options mean finding bargain airfares is much easier. There are now three options for direct flights between Vancouver and Hong Kong, which means finding bargain airfares is much easier.
排列的次序問題 There are now three options for direct flights between Vancouver and Hong Kong, which means finding bargain airfares is much easier. 如果說含有關係子句的主要子句是個簡單不複雜的句子，如 “He tore up my photo, which upset me.” 是很容易安排次序。 如果主詞出現了4個直接、間接的形容詞來修飾，就會產生排序問題。 • 4 message units： (1) there are now three options (2) for direct flights (3) between Vancouver and Hong Kong (4) which means finding bargain airfares is much easier
Message unit 位置分配原則是： 1. 主要資訊 - 一定是句子核心 (core) 2. 補語 受詞或主要相關資訊 優先於修飾語 3. 修飾語間，有其約定俗成的優先次序 : - 地點, 時間 - 數量, 大小, 顏色其它修飾等 4. 會讓人產生ambiguity部份優先
(1) there are now three options (2) for direct flights (3) between Vancouver and Hong Kong (4) which means finding bargain airfares is much easier • 4 message units： 1423 : There are now three options, which means finding bargain airfares is much easier, for direct flights between Vancouver and Hong Kong. 1243: There are now three options for direct flights, which means finding bargain airfares is much easier between Vancouver and Hong Kong. 1324 : There are now three options between Vancouver and Hong Kong for direct flights, which means finding bargain airfares is much easier. 1234: There are now three options for direct flights between Vancouver and Hong Kong, which means finding bargain airfares is much easier.
Adverb clauses - Time Clauses • Adverb clause is dependent/subordinate clause that acts as “adverb”. http://esl.about.com/library/grammar/blgr_adverbclauses_time.htm
Adverb – it modifies adjective, verb, and adverb.It tells us: When Where How Let’s clean the garage on Sunday. I ate my lunch at a nice restaurant. we waited patiently.
Clause: Adjective clause Adverb clause – provides information for a noun. – tells us when, where, how, why. 7 common conjunctive adverbs used in adverb clause: when, while, where, as, since, if, although
Example: Adverb clause – it is a group of words with a subject and a verb, and it is acting as an “adverb”. It modifies verb, adjective, adverb, entire clause. • Today is an adverb modifying • the verb walked. It is telling us • when I walked. A whole clause is modifying the verb walked. It is still telling us when I walked. I walked today. I walked before the sun went down.
Adverb clause = dependent clause I listen music until I fall asleep. Whenever my teacher yells, I know she’s having a bad day. I will take out the trash after I walk the dog. Until I fall asleep Whenever my teacher yells After I walk the dog
When an adverb clause begins the sentence use a comma to separate the two clauses. When the adverb clause finishes the sentence there is no need for a comma. As soon as he arrives, we will have some lunch. He gave me a call when he arrived in town.
Time Clauses = Using adverb clauses with time expressions Time clauses and phrases help show the continuity of development in a process. The most common time words used to introduce time clauses are: before, after, when, while, as, and until.
Examples: • Autumn is the season. The leaves of many trees change color during the season. • 2. Thanksgiving is a holiday. Families like to gather together on the holiday. Autumn is the season when the leaves of many trees change color. Thanksgiving is a holiday when families like to gather together.
Types of time clause: • Simultaneous action • Sequential action • Participial phrases
Time clauses1. Simultaneous action While As _______ the butter is melting, break three eggs into a bowl.
Time clauses2. Sequential action • ________the eggs have thickened, serve them with toast. • The eggs must have thicken ______ you serve them. • Do not serve the eggs ______ they have thickened. When After (1st action) (2nd action) (1st action) (2nd action) before until (2nd action) (1st action)
Time clauses3. participial phrases • Simultaneous actions clause: While you are melting the butter, break three eggs into a bowl. phrase: _____________________, break … • Sequential actions clause: After/ When you have beaten the eggs, pour them into the pan. phrase: _________________________, pour … While melting the butter After having beaten the eggs
When - at a time 時間點 瞬間動作 / 時段during the time 連續性 When's the baby due?We'll go when you're ready.She was only twenty when she had her first baby.He was quite shocked when I told him.I was just getting into the bath when the telephone rang.When I got home, he was having supper. 1. At what time – at the time at which (adv) (conj) 2. Considering that - considering the fact that: (conj) 3. Although – despite the fact that (conj) How can you say you don't like something when you've never even tried it! You can't complain of being lonely when you don't make any effort to meet people. He says he hasn't got any money when in fact he's got thousands of dollars in his account. I don't understand how he can say that everything's fine when it's so obvious that it's not.
While – during the time時段 / 同時/ 連續性 I only stayed for a short while."When did that happen?" "Oh, it was a while ago (= a long time ago).I haven't seen him for a while (= for a long time). 1. a while a length of time (n) 2. during the time that, or at the same time as (conj) 3. despite the fact that; although (conj) 4. compared with the fact that; but (conj) I read it while you were drying your hair.While I was in Italy I went to see Alessandro.I thought I heard him come in while we were having dinner."I'm going to the post office." "While you're there can you get me some stamps?“ While I accept that he's not perfect in many respects, I do actually like the man.While I understand your point of view, I do also have some sympathy with Mike. Tom is very extrovert and confident while Katy's shy and quiet.I do every single bit of housework while he just does the dishes.
As - 同時性 / 正在發展或變化 / 連續性 She'll soon be as tall as her mother.I can't run as fast as you. 1.Comparison - used in comparisons to refer to the degree of sth (adv) 2. Purpose – used to describe the purpose or quality of sb/sth (prep) 3. Because (conj) 4. While (conj) - during the time that 5. Like (conj) - in the same way She works as a waitress.It could be used as evidence against him.The news came as quite a shock to us. As it was getting late, I decided to book into a hotel.You can go first as you're the oldest. I saw him as I was coming into the building.He gets more attractive as he gets older. As he grew older he became more confident. He got divorced, (just) as his parents had done years before.This year, as in previous years, tickets sold very quickly.As with his earlier movies, the special effects in his latest film are brilliant.
Special notes: When I got home, he was having supper. When I was young, I liked dancing. 1. 在…時刻 (單一時間點) – when 用終止性或連續性動詞 2. 有動作先後關係時 when 不能與 while 互換 3. when 句子裡動詞為終止性時 不能與 while 互換 4.句子裡表動作的是連續性動詞when / while 可互換 5. While 常用來表示兩各同時進行的長動作 6. As 多用來談兩各平行動作或兩種狀態變化 時間性比較緊湊 When he has finished his work, he takes a short rest. (after) When I got to the cinema, the film had already begun. (before) When he came yesterday, we were playing basketball. While / when we were still laughing, the teacher came in.
practice When While 1. _____________the doorbell rang, Brian was taking a shower. 2. __________ he was watching the news on TV, Jonathan was eating his dinner. 3. Tom was backing into a parking space ____________ he heard a crunch. 4. ______ I was young, I liked dancing. 5. ______ I was sleeping, a thief broke in. 6. ______ I came into the room, I found him lying there asleep. 7. ______ I was walking down the street, an American asked me for directions to the nearest station. 8. ______________we were still laughing, the teacher came in. when When While When As When / while
Common sentence connectors of time during this period at the same time meanwhile • Melt the butter in the pan; ___________, beat the eggs. (Simultaneous action) • Beat the eggs well; ___________, pour them into the pan. afterwards after that then following that at that point (Sequential actions)
關係副詞 where Examples: This is the house where John lives. = This is the house in which John lives. = This is the house which John lives in. = This is the house John lives in. where表地方 = in which 關係副詞where：因其詞性為副詞，不能當作關係子句中的 主詞或受詞(=in/on/at/to + which)，所以where帶領的關係 子句中一定另有主詞 Examples (O) John bought the house, which is beautiful. (X) John bought the house, where is beautiful. This is the room. I study in the room. = This is the room which I study in. = This is the room in which I study. = This is the room where I study. (in which = where)
Special notes X 1. Do not use prepositions before either where or when: ___They live in a building in where there are many apartments. ___ I'll always remember the day on when we met. ___ Autumn is the season during when the leaves of many trees change color. 2. In very formal writing, you may use prepositions before which--but not before that: ___They live in a building in that there are many apartments. ___ They live in a building in whichthere are many apartments. ___ I'll always remember the day on that we met. ___ I'll always remember the day onwhich we met. ___ Autumn is the season during that the leaves of many trees change color. ___ Autumn is the season duringwhichthe leaves of many trees change color. X X X o X o X o
Practice: o 1. ____ University of Columbia is the place which our study was conducted in. 2. ____ Tomorrow is the day on when he has his job interview. . 3. ____ 1990 is the year in which they were married. 4. ____ This is the apartment which we have lived in for 7 years. . 5. ____ The bus had left while we arrived at the bus stop. (the place where our study was conducted.) X when o (1990 is the year when they were married.) o This is the apartment where we have lived for 7 years. This is the apartment in which I have lived for 7 years. X When while 引導的時間必須是延續性的動詞或動作正在進行 when 引導的時間既可以是延續性，也可以是非延續性動詞。
複合關係代名詞 whoever, whomever, whichever, whosever, whatever 都有“any”的意思 • I don’t need this book any more. Please give it to whoever needs it. • You can try to say hello to whomever you meet. • Here are two cell phones. You can take whichever you like. • All of these are free. Just take whatever you want. = please give it to any who needs it. Say hello to any whom you meet. Take any that you like. Take any that you want.
Participle - a word formed from a verb and used as an adjective to modify nouns. A participle often appears with additional words that adds details to it. Present participle: V - ing Past participle: V –ed
Together, the participle and the additional words form a “participial phrase”, such as noisily burping, circled by the hungry sharks, waving at the TV camera… • participles + other modifiers; • used to modify nouns and pronouns.
Examples: • In his movie, Arnold Schwarzenegger uses his muscles more readily than his brain. • In his movie, Arnold Schwarzenegger uses his muscles more readily than his brain, choppingoff barbarians’ heads with his gigantic sword in another.
Using participial phrases to suggest relationships Participial phrases not only wake up your sentences but also suggest time or cause-result relationship. Participial phrases suggest such relationship less directly than clauses beginning with terms like “because”, “thus”, “therefore”, and “as a result.” Example: Because many actors glared directly at the camera and did not blink for long periods of time, they started to have eye problems several years later. Glaring directly at the camera and did not blink for long periods of time, many actors started to have eye problems several years later.
More examples: • Some Vietnam vets were disillusioned by the American public’s negative perception of the war. Therefore, they suffered severe mental problems when they returned to civilian life. • We pulled off the interstate. Then we descended the exit ramp to the stadium, a crowd of people came out and waved to us. Disillusioned by the American public’s negative perception of the war, some Vietnam vets suffered severe mental problems when they returned to civilian life. We pulled off the interstate, descending the exit ramp to the stadium, a crowd of people came out and waved to us.
Participial phrases formed from relative clauses (by reducing subject pattern)
Perfect Form Participles:Active (having discovered) & Passive (having been discovered) emphasize the “completed” action.
Participial Phrases from Adverbial Clauses: Before choosing a college, a student should consider several factors. A student should consider several factors before choosing a college. Since coming to the United States three years ago, Carlos hasn’t been back home. Carlos hasn’t been back home since coming to the United States three years ago.
Coming from a very conservative family, Carlos was shocked at the American system of coed dormitories. Gradually getting used to American customs, he became less homesick.
After passing the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman at the college. Having passed the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman at the college. While preparing for the TOEFL exam, he lived with an American family. Preparing for the TOEFL exam, he lived with an American family. When asked about his life in the United States, he said that he was enjoying himself. Asked about his life in the United States, he said that he was enjoying himself.
Position and Punctuation of Participial Phrases • A restrictive participial phrases follows the noun it modifies. There are twelve students receiving rewards this year. • A nonrestrictive phrase may precede or follow the noun it modifies. Teresa, hurrying to catch a bus, stumbled and fell. Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.
Sometimes, we can move participial phrases from one position to another in a sentence – before the main clause, after it, in the middle of it. 1. Keeping one eye on his professor, Ross quickly scanned the comic hidden behind his bulky biology textbook. 2. Ross, keeping on eye on his professor, quickly scanned the comic hidden behind his bulky biology textbook. 3. Ross quickly scanned the comic hidden behind his bulky biology textbook, keeping one eye on his professor.
If the participial phrase describes something that happened before the main action of the sentence, the participial phrase will precede that main action. • Introduced twenty years ago as labor-saving devices, computerized cash registers are now installed in about 85 percent of all china stores. If the participial phrase describes something that happened after the main action of the sentence, the participial phrase will follow that main action. • John opened the brightly wrapped package, discovering a small wooden box.
Using present participial phrases – two actions are occurring simultaneously, whether the phrases come before or after the main clause. • Carrying the cumbersome bass drum in front of me, I jostled my way through the stubborn crowd to the bandstand. • I jostled my way through the stubborn crowd to the bandstand, carrying the cumbersome bass drum in front of me.
Practice – making participles • Peter Mark Johnson, who conducts ocean tours off the coast of Baja California, claims that animals in the wild like people. He noted that grey whales observe his tour boat from afar, then approach. They touch the craft with their snouts and refuse to leave until the startled tourists pet them. The tour guide thinks all this means that nature is not necessarily hostile. • He noted that grey whales observe his tour boat from afar, then approach, touching the craft with their snouts and refusing to leave until the startled tourists pet them.
Practice: (不管是現在式或過去式,動作若是主動 -Ving. 動作若是被動,- V p.p) They, assisted by brave and dedicated abolitionists, slept in barns and churches. 1. They slept in barns and churches. They were assisted by brave and dedicated abolitionists. 2. He decided to help fugitives. He made his house into a station on the Underground Railroad. 3. Cold travelers still stay in the basement. Cold travelers are warmed by the working fireplace. 4. They have kept the basement in good condition. They have kept it as a tribute to the Underground Railroad. He, making his house into a station on the Underground Railroad, decided to help fugitives. Cold travelers, warmed by the working fireplace, still stay in the basement. They have kept the basement, as a tribute to the Underground Railroad, in good condition.
Reducing Dependent Clauses • We can save words by reducing a dependent clause to a phrase or a word.
Reducing Dependent Clauses to… 1. Prepositional phrases 2. Infinitive phrases 3. To participles or participial phrases 4. To adverbs. 5. To adjectives