Clauses …include a subject and a verb
Main Types • Independent (sentence) • Dependent (Subordinate)
Dependent Clauses • Adjective Clauses • Adverb Clauses • Noun Clauses
Adjective Clauses • Modify nouns and pronouns • Answer the questions which one? What kind? • Start with relative pron. or adv. (that, which, who… or after, before, since…) • Can be removed from the sentence
Essential versus Nonessential • Nonessential clauses are unnecessary to the basic meaning of the sentence (usually follow proper nouns). • Set these off with commas • Essential clauses are necessary to understand the meaning of the sentence (after common nouns).
Adverb Clauses • Usually modify verbs, but also modify adverbs, adjectives, and verbals • Tell where, when, in what manner, to what extent, under what condition, or why. • Start with subordinating conjunctions (although, because, if, where…) • Usually start or end the sentence and modify the verb
Elliptical Clauses (type of adv. clause) • The verb or subject is understood • They start with than or as
Noun Clause • Acts as a noun: subject, D.O., I.O., P.N., O.P., or App. • Answers the question what • They cannot be removed from the sentence (except for appositives) • Start with words like that, who, how, what…
Identifying the Function of a Noun Clause – by placement Subj, D.O. I.O. P.N. Starts after between after the action a. verb linking sentence verb and D.O. verb (what?) (for whom?) O.P. App. After after a Prep. noun
Determining Adjective, Adverb, or Noun… • If the clause starts the sentence… • Followed by a comma – adv. • Not followed by a comma – n. • If the clause can be removed from the sentence… • If the clause follows a noun and describes a noun – adj. • If the clause indicates where, when, or a condition – adv. • If the clause tells what or who – N.