Adverbial Clause A subordinate clause that is used like an adverb to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb Answers these questions: How? When? Where? How much? To what extent?Under what condition? and Why? Introduced by a subordinating conjunction
Examples: When? We will go whenever you are ready. Where? We will park wherever we can find an empty spot in the garage. Under What We will attend the concert if we can get Condition?tickets. Why? We left early so that we would not be late.
Adverb Clause Characteristics Tell more about the rest of the sentence in which they appear Can occur as sentence openers, subject-verb splits, or sentence closers
Examples: Sentence openers: After he got himself under control, he apologized. --Stephen King, “The Mouse on the Mile” Because its primary reason for existence was government, Maycomb was spared the grubbiness that distinguished most Alabama towns its size. --Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird
Examples (cont.): Subject-verb split: The truck drivers, when they heard that MaxieHammerman had been released, were furious. --Jean Merrill, The Pushcart War Sentence closer: Alfred quietly slipped out the back door and waited until Henry left. --Robert Lipsyte, The Contender
Adjectival Clause Sometimes called an adjective clause or a relative clause A subordinate clause that is used to modify a noun or pronoun Answers these questions: Which one(s)? What kind? Usually begins with a relative pronoun: Who, Whose, Whom, Which, and That
Examples: Which One(s)? The person who just rang the bellleft a package. What Kind? The package, which was heavy, came from our grandmother.
Adjective Clause Characteristics Describe whatever is to the left of them in the same sentence Can occur as subject-verb splits or as sentence closers
Examples: Subject-verb splits: Keeton, who overtopped Norriss by five inches and outweighed him by a hundred pounds, gave the deputy a harsh little shake and then did let go. --Stephen King, Needful Things Even his eyes, which had been young, looked old. --John Steinbeck, The Red Pony
Examples (cont.): Sentence closers: They dropped his belongings at the freshman dorm, where the only sign of his roommate was a khaki duffel bag and a canvas butterfly chair printed to resemble a gigantic hand. --Anne Tyler, Saint Maybe I loved school with a desperate passion, which became more intense when I began to realize what a monumental struggle it was for my parents and brothers and sisters to keep me there. --Eugenia Collier, Sweet Potato Pie
Noun Clause A subordinate clause that is used like a noun Can be used the same way that a single noun can be used: Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Object of a Preposition, and Predicate Nominative
Examples: Subject Whatever you choose is fine with me. Object of The book from which I got most of Preposition my information is in the library. Direct Object For lunch, I will have whatever you are having. .