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China and Japan Part V, Qing, China thru the Meiji Restoration, Japan Gov/Hist 352 Campbell University
Canton System Emperor Qianlong restricted foreign trade to the factory (warehouse) district of Canton. Trade was limited to a chartered group of 7 or 8 Chinese merchants, called the Cohong, who were granted a monopoly on foreign trade.
Attempts at Diplomacy • Canton System was odious to the British and other trading countries. The British sent three embassies to Peking in an effort to negotiate changes: • Charles Cathcart (1787) • George Macartney (1792-3) • Lord Amherst (1816) • All attempts to achieve diplomatic contact were rejected. A fourth attempt was made by Lord Napier in 1834. He died without ever being permitted to deliver his credentials.
Conflicting Views • By the 19th Century, advances in European science and industry had led to great improvements in ship building and armament. Science was disdained by Chinese scholar officials due to its association with Daoism. • The Napoleonic Wars left the British East India Company without serious competition in Asia. The British had conquered India and thought China would fall as easily. • The Chinese thought the British were western maritime barbarians.
Conflicting Views (Cont’d) • The Qing Dynasty feared that contact with foreigners could spark discontent and rebellion. The British demanded direct diplomatic & counselor representation and unfettered trade. • There was a great demand for things Chinese, porcelains, silk and especially tea. Qianlong asserted that China was self-sufficient and didn’t need trade, although it hardly minded profiting. • The balance of trade was heavily in favor the Chinese. The difference had to be made up in Silver.
Opium • Opium was seen by the East India Company as the answer to the trade imbalance. It was a high value item which the company could grow in India. • Opium had been traded in small quantities since 900. In the 16th Century, trade became significant and by 1782, it was a major import item. • The Chinese prohibited the importation of opium in 1729, but enforcement was lax. Smuggling was facilitated by bribery. • By 1805, opium had reversed the trade imbalance. The surplus was 4 ½ million taels of Silver.
America’s Role • The Napoleonic Wars left the U.S. as Britain’s principal maritime trade competitor in Asia. • British trade was conducted under the umbrella of the East India Company. U.S. vessels were on their own. • U.S. trade was less than half that of Britain, but both dealt in Opium. The U.S. traded Turkish and Persian Opium. The Sea Witch China Tea Clipper.
Commissioner Lin • Imperial Commissioner Lin Zexu was appointed in March 1839 to end the opium trade. He did this by terminating all trade until the British surrendered their opium and signed pledges to stop further smuggling. • The Superintendent of Trade, Capt Elliott, ordered 21,306 chests to be delivered to Lin. The Lin Zexu Memorial Museum, Macao, China.
Pretext for War • Capt Elliott objected to individual traders signing pledges to stop the sale of opium as it undermined British jurisdiction over its subjects. • In November 1839, a clash occurred between 21 war junks and several British warship over the defection of a ship whose captain had signed a bond and was proceeding to Canton under Chinese protection. • The British stopped all trade and the Governor General of India declared war on January 31, 1840.
First Opium War • In June 1840, the British appeared with 16 warships, 4 armed steamers, 27 transports and 4,000 troops. • Canton and the Yangtze were blockaded. A force proceeded to Tientsin with a letter from Prime Minister Palmerston. • Manchu Prince Qishan replaced Lin and negotiations began in Canton. The First Opium War lasted from 1840 to 1844
Treaty of Nanjing • After a brief period of negotiations, hostilities resumed in 1841. British forces reaching 10,000, Canton was besieged and British guns threatened Nanjing. • Two treaties resulted: the Treaty of Nanjing (1842) and the Treaty of the Bogue (1843). • China signed similar treaties with the U.S. and France in 1844. • These treaties set the pattern of relations between the west and China for the next century.
Treaty Provisions • The Cohong was abolished. • Five ports were opened for trade: Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo and Shanghai. • The British could appoint consular officers at treaty ports. • China was to pay an indemnity of $21 million: $6 million for the confiscated opium, $3million to cover debts owed by hong merchants and $12 million to cover the cost of the war.
Treaty Provision (Cont’d) • Letters, memos, etc., between the British and Chinese officials were to be called “communications,” not petitions. • An average tariff was set at 5% for all imports with an individual maximum of 14%. • The Island of Hong Kong was ceded to the British in perpetuity. • Treaty of the Bogue included “extraterritoriality” and “most favored nation” provisions.
Arrow War • The Arrow War or Second Opium War (1856-60) was prompted by the seizure of the lorcha Arrow. • The Arrow was flying a British flag used for safe conduct between Canton and Hong Kong. Although released by the Chinese, an appropriate apology was not given. • The incident, together with the “judicial murder” of a priest, was considered a convenient opportunity for treaty revision.
The Conflict • The British attacked Canton, but had to wait for reinforcements until the end of the Indian Mutiny. They captured Canton in 1857 and ruled it for three years. • When British and French demands for treaty revision led to unsatisfactory Chinese representation, the British attacked the fort at Taku and sailed up the Peiho River to Tianjin. The Treaty of Tienjin was negotiated and signed in this room in a Buddhist Temple.
Treaty of Tienjin • The treaty powers were granted the following rights plus a 6 million tael indemnity. • To maintain resident legations in Beijing. • To travel in all parts of the interior with passport. • To trade in ten additional ports, four of which were on the Yangtze River.. • For missionaries to travel and anywhere in China. • Additional negotiations in Shanghai legalized the opium trade and revised the tariff schedule. • To become effective, ratified copies of the treaty were required to be exchanged in Beijing.
Entering Beijing • The British and French attempted to sail to Tienjin, but found the fort reinforced and the river blocked. • The fort was stormed after reinforcements arrived in 1860. • An advanced party of 39 was sent to Beijing only to be captured and held as hostages. Twenty were killed. Lord Elgin burned the Summer Palace in reprisal. The Manchu Bannermen fought to the death defending the fort at Taku..
Convention of Beijing • The convention was signed in 1860 following the entry of foreign forces into Beijing. The parties were Britain, France and Russia. The convention: • Ceded part of the Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters Island to the British. • Ceded parts of outer Manchuria to Russia plus the Maritime Province east of the Ussuri River which included the warm water port of Vladivostock. • The convention represented a major achievement of Russian ambitions in the Far East begun with the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 and the Treaty of Aigun in 1858.
Chinese Opium Production • To stem the loss of Silver, China began domestic production of opium after 1858. • Importation peaked in 1879 at 6,700 tons • By 1906, China was producing 35,000 tons (85%) of the world’s supply and had 13.5 million addicts (27% of its male population). • Major production areas were in the S.W.: Szechuan (200,000 piculs), Yunnan (30,000 piculs) and Kweichow (15,000 piculs). This production eventually shifted to N. Burma and Thailand (the Triangle).
Taiping Rebellion (1850-64) • At the time of the Arrow War, China was facing a major internal rebellion that resulted in the death of 20 million. • The leader of the rebellion believed that he was the younger brother of Christ sent to found the Taiping Tianguo (The Great Peaceful Heavenly Dynasty). • Hong Xiuquan was, in fact, a failed examination candidate. Hong Xiuquan (1814-64)
God’s Chinese Son • After failing the civil service exam for a third time in 1837, Hong Xiuquan became ill and delirious for 40 days. He saw visions to which he later applied a Christian interpretation. • Hong believed that he had seen God, met Jesus and been given divine mission to save mankind and exterminate demons. Hong also believed that he was the source of new revelation. • Hong’s beliefs emphasized the Old Testament and the 10 Commandments.
God’s Chinese Son (cont’d) • Hong became an itinerant preacher among the Hakka charcoal burners of Guangxi. • The ranks of his followers quickly grew. He preached strict morality, including monogamy and the prohibition of foot binding. • His social message included equality of men and women, communalism and the redistribution of land according to the Rites of Zhou. • His military organization included both male and female units.
The Rebellion • The demons that Hong sought to exterminate were the Manchu. The Taipings cut their queues and stopped shaving their foreheads to show defiance. • By 1850, they were fighting government forces. In 1853, their numbers reached over a million and they had taken Nanjing as their capital. Thereafter, momentum was lost and internal dissension began. • Continued advances brought a small force of 7,000 to within 20 miles to Tianjin before it was defeated. Larger forces advanced west until 1856, when they were defeated.
What Went Wrong? • The Taipings refused to recognize the treaty rights of the western powers, who ostensibly remained neutral. The claim of new revelation didn’t help. • Their ideals while anti-Manchu were also anti-Confucian; hence, considered subversive to the social order by the scholar-official/gentry class. • Their behavior did not conform to their creed. • Severe treatment of conquered people alienated the masses. • Hong became largely a figurehead. Yang Xiuqing was purged along with thousands of followers. Hong Rengan came to prominence, but too late.
Zeng Guofan and the Xiang Army • Government forces had been far from effective against the Taiping. • Zeng, a scholar-official, conceived of a new model army while visiting Hunan for his mother’s funeral in 1851. He stayed to build a regional militia based on Confucian values. His militia successfully fought Taiping forces and retook Nanjing. • His success inspired Li Hongzhang’s Anhui Army and Zuo Zongtang’s “Chu” Army. Zeng Guofan (1811-72)
The Ever Victorious Army • Frederick Townsend Ward was an American adventurer. He founded the Ever Victorious Army in Shanghai in response to recurring Taiping threats to the city. • Ward’s initial concept was to use western mercenaries. However, experience soon led him to develop a highly disciplined and effective Chinese militia led by western officers. • He died in battle in 1862. Frederick Townsend Ward
“Chinese” Gordon • Charles George “Chinese” Gordon was a British officer appointed to succeeded Ward at the request of Li Hongzhang. • A second mercenary army operated with Li’s forces, the Ever Triumphant Army. It was composed of Chinese and Filipinos led by French officers. • When the British withdrew their officers from Chinese service, the French continued their support. Charles George Gordon
Other Rebellions • The Nian and Muslim rebellions caused the death of 70 million. • The Nian Rebellion (1851-68): • Took place in Shantung, Anhui and Henan Provinces. • Fed on the discontent left by the White Lotus Rebellion and the misery of the Yellow River flooding. • Was suppressed through steady attrition by Li Hongzhang’s Anhui Army. Li Hongzhang (1823-1901)
Other Rebellions (Cont’d) • Muslim Rebellion (1855-73): • There were about a million Muslims living in Gansu, Shaanxi and Yunnan. • Heavy taxes, desperate poverty and conflicts with the Chinese led to riots and then rebellion in Yunnan in 1855. Rebellion broke out in the north in 1862 fomented by conflict with Chinese and Taiping and Nian raids. • Zuo Zongtang supressed the rebellion in the north in a three-year long campaign targeted against the strongest rebels. His advisers were Lin Zexu and Lin’s secretary. Zou Zongtang (1812-1885)
The Tongzhi Restoration • Emperor Xianfeng died in Machuria in 1861 after fleeing the western forces that took Beijing in 1860. He left only one heir, five year old Tongzhi. • Tongzhi’s principal regents were his mother, Empress Cizi and his uncle, Prince Gong. • Prince Gong assumed responsibility for foreign affairs and established the Zongli Yamen under the Grand Council. • Thru the Zongli Yamen, he began modernization of China to meet the foreign challenge. Emperor Tongzhi (1856-1875)
The Self-Strengthening Movement • Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang, and Zuo Zongtang were all actively involved in the Self-Strengthening Movement. • The goal was to deal with China’s deficiencies by: • Studying science, international law and foreign languages. • Establishing arsenals and shipyards in Shanghai, Canton and Fuchou. • Conducting relief projects in the Yangtze River basin. • Reforming the civil service exam system and local government. Prince Gong (1833-1898)
Self-Strengthening Philosophy • Many in Qing government and Chinese society were concerned over the subversive impact of Western science and technology. • The principal argument for learning from the west was that “barbarian techniques” were appropriate against “barbarians.” Western techniques would be used to protect Chinese civilization. • The ability to separate “function” from “substance” was understandably doubted by many.
Chinese – Foreign Cooperation • The Maritime Customs Service was an example of cooperation between China and the foreign powers. Under Robert Hart (1863 – 1908), the customs service became a modern, administrative arm of the Qing government that substantially funded the reform effort. • Cooperation with the west also produced the first Chinese diplomatic mission to the West which was headed by the retiring American minister. Anson Burlingame in 1867.
China’s First Diplomatic Mission • Burlingame, who was retiring as U.S. minister to China, was appointed by the Chinese to lead a diplomatic mission on their behalf to America and the principal European nations. • The objective was to conclude treaties of amity. • He was accompanied by two Chinese ministers and six Chinese students. • Burlingame died in St. Petersburg in 1870. Anson Burlingame (1820-1870)
Empress Dowager Cixi • Cixi’s rule as regent from “behind the curtain” was symbolic of the problems faced by China. • She was committed to maintaining power. • She manipulated the succession of three child emperors. • She and those around her were totally corrupt,e.g., building the marble pavilion with funds intended for the navy. • Nevertheless, provincial governors such as Li Hongzhang remained loyal to the dynasty. Cixi (1835-1908)
Education • Education was recognized as the key to modernization. Attempts both overseas and at home were disappointing. • Between 1872 and 1881, 120 students were sent to the US. They quickly adopted American attitudes and customs in spite of Confucian supervision and were considered alienated from their own culture. • At home, schools were established in foreign languages, telegraphy, medicine, mining and other modern subjects, but mastery of these fields was not recognized in the civil service exam system. Degrees were only granted by passing traditional exams.
Economic Self-Strengthening • The policy of “government supervision and merchant operation” was applied to new enterprises. Li Hongzhang’s China Merchants Steam Navigation Company is an example. • The capital was a combination of private and public. • The government granted a monopoly on the transportation of tax grain plus tariff concessions. • The company became Li’s cash cow. • Sinecures were provided for political supporters. • Funds were diverted to buy warships and make loans to the Korean government. • Ships were used to transport troops.
Missionary Efforts • Missionaries were seen by the bulk of Chinese as an extension of western imperialism. Suspicion and hostility led to events such as the Tianjin massacre. • Protestant missionaries such as W.A.P Martin, Robert Morrison and James Legge plus numerous medical missionaries spread western knowledge and served as cultural intermediaries. • The number of Protestant converts by 1890 was only 37,000, the product of 1300 missionaries. There about 160,000 native Catholics.
Sino-French War (1884-85) • France had carved out a colonial empire in Indo-China between 1859 and 1882. • China intervened in 1882 over the seizure of Hanoi. The war was fought in Vietnam, on Taiwan and along the Chinese coast. The Fuzhou dockyards and fleet built there were destroyed. • China was forced to surrender suzerainty over Vietnam, acknowledge a French protectorate of Laos (1886), cede Macao to Portugal (1887) and recognize the British conquest of Burma (1890’s) .
The Opening of Japan • On July 8, 1853, Commodore Matthew C. Perry (USN) entered Edo Bay with his “black ships” to demand that Japan open its ports to the U.S. • Under the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan had enforced a policy of near total isolation for almost 250 years. • The bakufu was thrown into a panic. Its inability to expel the foreigners brought its legitimacy into question. Matthew C. Perry (1794-1858)
U.S. Objectives • Commodore Perry’s task was to present a letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor of Japan. It was signed, “Your Good Friend, Millard Fillmore.” • America sought: • A coaling station on the great circle route to China at which provisions could be obtained. • Assurance of good treatment for shipwrecked sailors. • Trade.
Japanese Response • The Japanese were awed by the speed and size of Perry’s ships. • The Japanese made an unsuccessful attempt to intercept Perry’s ships as they entered Edo Bay. • The large amounts of black smoke led some Japanese to think that Perry’s ships were on fire. • The letter was delivered to representatives of the bakufu at a hostile but correct meeting. The letter was to be transmitted to the Emperor. Perry would return in the Spring for an answer. • Perry’s delegation returned to their ships with a small Marine band playing Yankee Doodle.
Treaty of Kanagawa • Perry returned in February of 1854 with eight ships. The bakufu decided it had little choice but to follow a conciliatory policy. • The Treaty of Kanagawa: • Opened two ports for provisioning American ships, Shimoda and Hakodate. • Provided for humane treatment shipwrecked sailors. • Established counselor but not commercial relations. • Townsend Harris was chosen to negotiate a separate commercial treaty. He arrived in 1856.
The Harris Commercial Treaty • Harris and his Dutch interpreter were the sole foreign residents in Shimoda. The interpreter, Henry Heusken, was killed by an irate Samurai. • Although ill, Harris persisted and in 1858 produced the treaty which included all the standard provisions: extra-territoriality, tariff limitations, most favored nation status and additional ports. • He was rewarded with a cow and a female servant, Okichi. Townsend Harris
1860 Japanese Embassy to U.S. • Ratification of the Harris Commercial Treaty was to take place in the U.S. An ambassador and 170 samurai made the trip. • They were celebrities, feted with a parade down Broadway in N.Y. • A high point of the visit was a meeting with President James Buchanan. Studio photo of members of Japanese embassy to the U.S.
Meiji Restoration • The opening of Japan precipitated a crises which eventually led to the fall of the shogunate and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. • Two outside han led the “sonno-joi” movement, Satsuma and Chosu, collectively known as “Satcho.” • Iwakura Tonomi, a court noble, encouraged Satcho samurai to see the merits of imperial restoration. Emperor Meiji (1852-1912)
The Mito School • Tokugawa Nariaki (Lord of Mito) furthered the restoration by: • Successfully backing his own son for shogun by appealing to the emperor. • Sponsoring an academy supportive of emperor based historiography under Yoshida Shoin. Among the students were Kido Koin, Ito Hirobumi and Yamagata Aritomo, all of whom played major roles in the restoration. • Yoshida was beheaded when he attempted to assassinate envoys sent to gain the emperor”s consent to the Harris Commercial Treaty. Tokugawa Nariaki (1800-60)
Chosu Wars (1864-65 & 1866) • Chosu’s blatant hostility toward treaty powers placed the han in rebellion. The bakufu raised a military force and defeated Chosu in 1865. • Chosu modernized it forces, introducing mixed samurai-peasant rifle regiments, and defeated the bakufu in 1866. (Satsuma remained neutral.) • Defeat by a single han, undermined the authority of the bakufu. It unsuccessfully sought to form coalition with other daimyo. • On January 3, 1868, Satsuma led several han in seizing Kyoto and custody of the emperor.
New Leadership • Backers of the “sonno-joi” movement now had an opportunity to lead the nation. Among them were • Okubo Toshimichi of Satsumo. A strong personality. • Kido Koin of Chosu. Benefited from his father being a “Dutch” scholar and an early student of medical science. • Saigo Takamori of Satsuma. Physically imposing, a man of traditional samurai bearing. He was the inspiration for the movie, Last Samurai. • Their first steps were to move the emperor into the shogun’s palace in Edo (1869) and frame the Charter Oath (1868).
The Charter Oath • The oath was issued in the emperor’s name; its principal drafter was Kido Koin. The Oath: • Matters of state will be decided thru a widely convoked public assembly and public discussion. • All classes will unite to promote the economy and welfare of the nation. • All civil and military officials and the common people will be allowed to fulfill their aspirations. • Base customs will be replaced by principles of international justice. • Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world to strengthen the foundation of the imperial polity.