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China and Japan

China and Japan

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China and Japan

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  1. China and Japan SSWH11 Students will investigate political and social changes in Japan and in China from the seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth century CE. a. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rulers; include Oda Nobunaga and Kangxi. b. Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure.

  2. Important Dates to Know • Ming China 1368-1644 • The Manchus and Qing China 1644-1800 • The Tokugawa Shogunate 1600 – 1800

  3. Qing Dynasty • Founded by the Manchus, a non Chinese people • In the Ming period the Manchus had lived in communities in Manchuria (modern day northeastern China) • Hunters, farmers, and fishermen • Banners- Units of the Qing army, composed of soldiers, their families, and slaves

  4. Kangxi • Reigned from 1661-1722; perhaps the greatest ruler in Chinese history • Could speak, read, and write Chinese • Firmly believed the Manchus had a legitimate claim to the Mandate of Heaven • Toured areas where Ming support had been the highest; gave an exam to compile the official history of the Ming Dynasty

  5. Policies of the Qing Rulers • Tried to maintain their cultural distinctness • Brought Chinese into the imperial administration • Ordered all men to adopt Manchu dress & hairstyles • Restored peace & prosperity • Under Kangxi, the efforts of Christian missionaries reached its height

  6. Economic Changes • Between 1500 & 1800 China remained mostly agricultural • 85% of the people were small farmers • Major Increase in population due to long period of peace & stability, improvements in food supply, and faster growing species of rice increased the food supply • Increased population meant less land for each family

  7. Continued Economic Changes… • Steady growth in manufacturing and increased trade between provinces • Under Qing confined European traders to a small island outside Guangzhou • In 1793, the emperor wrote to King George III that China had no need of your country’s manufactures… the Chinese would later pay for their rejection of the British

  8. Class work Page 494 (4-7)

  9. Tokugawa Japan • At the end of the 15th century, Japan was in chaos. • Daimyo, heads of noble families controlled lands and warred with their neighbors • Process of unification began in the late 16th century with three powerful political figures

  10. 3 Powerful Leaders • Oda Nobunaga – began process of unification; Seized the capital of Kyoto 2. Toyotomi Hideyoshi Located his capital at Osaka 3. Tokugawa Ieyasu The daimyo of Edo (modern Tokyo) took control of Japan and took the title of shogun in 1603

  11. Tokugawa Rule • Set out to establish control of the feudal system • Long period of peace- known as the Great Peace was brought about by Tokugawa rule • The samurai who had served the daimyo ceased to be a warrior class

  12. Economic Changes • Under the Tokugawa, trade & industry began to flourish as never before • A Japanese merchant class emerged • Many peasants were forced to become tenants or work as hired help

  13. Social Changes • Class system became rigid • Intermarriage between classes was forbidden • Role of women became more restricted • Parents arranged marriages • Women who did not meet the expectations of her husband or his family would be divorced