China and Japan Part IV, Kamakura, Japan to Qing, China. Gov/Hist 352 Campbell University
Hogen and Heiji Conflicts • The Hogen (1156) and Heiji (1159-60) conflicts set the stage for the Gempei War. • These conflicts occurred during the period of Insei rule and involved the Taira and Minamoto clans. Taira no Kiyomori was the winner of both. • By 1180, the Minamoto had rebuilt its power in eastern Japan and under Yoritomo initiated the Gempei War (1180-85). Taira no Kiyomori (Woodblock Print)
Gempei War • The war led to the permanent defeat of the Taira by Minamoto Yoritomo. • Yoritomo’s younger brother, Yoshitsune, proved to be a brilliant military leader. • The heroic exploits of the war are celebrated in The Tale of Heike. One of the heroes of the tale is Minamoto Kiso Yoshinaka. The final battle was a naval engagement fought at Dan-no-ura on the Straits of Shimonoseki.
Kamakura Bakufu • Having defeated the Taira in 1185, Yoritomo became defacto ruler of Japan. He established the headquarters of his military government in Kamakura and wrestled the title of Shogun from the Imperial court in 1192. • After Yoritomo's death, Hojo Tokimasa, claimed the title of regent to Yoritomo's son, Minamoto no Yoriie. • The Hojo regency became hereditary. Minamoto Yoritomo (1123-60)
Jokyo Disturbance • By 1221, the Shogun exercised almost total control over the court. Emperor Go-Toba reacted by attempting to overthrow the Bakufu. • The emperor gathered forces loyal to the court (mostly Taira) at Kyoto and then declared the Hojo regent (Yoshitoki) an outlaw. • War ensued. The emperor’s forces were no match for the Shogun’s. The final battle was fought at the Uji River. Go-Toba and his sons were banished.
Jito and Shugo • Yoritomo devised a system of Jito (land stewards) and Shugo (constables or military protectors) thru which he imposed his control of the country. • Jito: • Levied the commissariat rice tax for military purposes. • Collected land taxes and dues from the shoen and provided shoen men for military service. • Reclaimed wastelands, supervised roads and post stations, arrested minor criminals, judged suits and conducted trade. • Eventually became hereditary local gentry.. • Shugo: activated the Imperial Guard, maintained security, suppressed rebellions, and punished major criminals. They became the daimyo.
Bakufu Government • Internally, the Bakufu was composed of three major major divisions. • Military – supervised the Minamoto vassals plus delt with military and police matters. • Administrative – a hereditary civil service which was initially quite effective. Documentation was a surprising strength. Titles, obligations, contracts pledges, etc., were all written and on record. • Judicial – functioned as a court of appeals for cases that could not be settled locally by the Jito and Shugo. Justice was prompt, impartial and fair. It recognized the mutual obligations of peasant and barons and didn't hesitate to side with the peasant, if appropriate.
Joei Code • The Joei Code was published in 1232. It was the Shogun’s law of the land. • Described the duties of the Jito and Shugo. • Laid down principles for judging disputes, primarily involving land tenure. • Dealt with the status of women and inheritance. • The wife is equally responsible as the husband for premeditated crimes. • Gifts of land to daughters are equally irrevocable as to sons. • Women may adopt children and transmit property to them. • Women do not loose property rights in case of divorce, unless for cause. • Emphasized the importance of fairness and equity.
Code of Bushido • The Code of Bushido (Way of the Warrior) evolved from clan house law. • Absolute loyalty to one’s lord transcended all other obligations including those to family, friends and even the emperor. • The vassal’s life was not his own, but a gift to his lord. • The vassal could hope for rewards, but the lord was not obligated to provide them. • Conflicts in loyalty and affection were the source of classic Japanese tragedy. The most famous of these is the Tale of the Forty-seven Ronin.
The Mongol Invasion • Kublai Khan attempted to invade Japan twice: • 1274: 450 ships, 15, 000 Mongol troops & 15,000 Korean seamen and auxiliaries attacked Kyushu. • 1281: Two fleets, one from Korea with 50,000 men and another from China with 100,000 men converged on Kyushu. • The Japanese fought heroically, but it was the Kamikaze that won. Mongol Invasion Route
The Mongol Invasion • 1274: • The Japanese garrison on Tsushima Island fought to the death. • The local stewards and constables on Kyushu engaged the Mongols w/o reinforcements. • 1281: • Hakata Bay was fortified. • The Japanese trained in mass maneuvers. • The temples and shrines chanted prayers. Mongol cannon balls and grenades. The Mongols not only used cannon but catapults as well to lob grenades against their enemy. Spent munitions were recently found by archeologist at Hakata Bay..
End of Kamakura Bakufu • Success against the Mongols was the undoing of the shogunate. • The Buddhist temples and Daoist shrines took much of the credit, claiming their prayers and supplications brought the kamikaze. • The warriors expected to be rewarded, but there was nothing with which to reward them. The usual rewards were land and booty. • Disillusion with the shogunate led to its weakening and resulted in stewards and protectors becoming increasingly independent.
The Pure Land Sect • The turbulence associated with the rise of the warrior class supported fear of the “end times” or mappo and pietism. Amida worship flourished. • Honen taught that the nembutsu was the only method of achieving salvation. This represented salvation through faith rather than works. • Shinran (1173-1262) emphasized gaining salvation through the “other power” of the Amida’s compassion. This was salvation by faith alone. His followers founded the True Pure Land sect.
Nichiren • Was a monk who founded the Nichiren school of Buddhism, consisting of the exclusive worship of the Lotus Sutra as the only means of salvation • He had studied for 20 years when in 1853 he declared his faith and asserted that all other forms of Buddhism should be banished. • He prophesized the Mongol invasion as Japan’s punishment in the “end times.” Nichiren (1222 to 1282) The name means “Sun Lotus.”
Zen • During the Kamakura period, Zen was promoted by two monks: • Eisai (1141-1215), a follower of the Rinzai school that used riddles or koan as an aid to enlightenment (satori). He also introduced the use of tea leading to the development of the tea ceremony. • Dogen (1200-1253), an advocate of the Soto school of Zen. It relied on Zazen, silent meditation. • Zen is a highly disciplined practice that can be quite physically demanding.
Kemmu Restoration • The Ashikaga Shogunate began with the Kemmu Restoration (1333-1336) when Emperor Go-Daigo tried to reassert imperial control. • Go-Daigo’s immediate objective was to break an agreement to alternate the selection of emperors between the two branches (Northern and Southern) of the Yamato family. • Two individuals acted in the emperor’s name: • Ashikaga Takauji (1305-1358) commander of the Bakufu force sent to suppress the rebellion. • Nitta Yoshisada (1301-1338) who seized Kamakura and ended the Minamoto bakufu and Hojo regency.
Ashikaga Shogunate • Go-Daigo played Ashikaga Takauji and Nitta Yoshida against each other and attempted to submerge their military forces into his civilian government. • Takauji defeated Nitta, dethroned the emperor, placed his own man on the throne from the Northern court and had himself declared shogun in 1338. • The Ashikaga did not have sufficient power to control events. The Shoen system broke down, the constables became powers unto themselves and the stewards stopped forwarding shiki to Kyoto.
Muromachi Bakufu • The Ashikaga shogunate established its bakufu in Muromachi, a district in Kyoto. • The structure of the bakufu changed little from Kamakura. The key difference was the increased power of the shugo, who became regional rulers. • Under Yoshimitsu, the shugo were required to establish their primary residence in Kyoto, where they ruled in council with the shogun. • To meet Ashikaga demands, the shugo and jito levied new taxes on land, households, businesses and trade, much of which they kept.
Yoshimitsu’s Japan • The Ashikaga Shogunate was seduced by the life-style of the imperial court. • Yoshimitsu and his heirs became great patrons of the arts while ignoring the anarchy around them. • Yoshimitsu engaged in extensive and lucrative trade with the Ming. • Zen temples functioned as patrons. The lavish life-style of the period is symbolized by the Golden Pavilion. Yoshimitsu began construction of the pavilion in 1397 as a residence for his retirement. It was converted into a Zen temple after his death in 1408.
Zen Architecture Together with Yoshimitsu’s Golden Pavilion, Yoshimasa’s Silver Pavilion and the Ryoanji rock garden reflect the strong influence of Zen. Like the Golden Pavilion, the Silver Pavilion was built as a retirement residence, then became a Zen temple. Ryoanji was built on a Fujiwara estate after the Onin War.
Zen & the Tea Ceremony • The tea ceremony became a ritual art during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun. • The Silver Pavilion was the first to have a room built specifically for the tea ceremony. • The tea room/house is intended to have an austere simplicity. There is no furniture, just mats. The walls are sliding partitions and doors. The entry is only 36 inches high, so all must bow acknowledging that they are equal before the tea. Japanese tea is prepared from powdered green leaves.
Noh • Noh is a classical Japanese performance form which combines dance, drama, music and poetry. • Actors wear masks and brightly colored costumes; a chorus accompanied by flutes and drums provides narration. All parts are played by men • Noh performances are accompanied by Kyogen farces to lift the mood. The founders of Noh were Kanami (1333-84)and his son, Zeami (1363-1443). Noh flourished under the patronage of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu
Trade and Commerce • Trade with China, and to a lesser extent Korea, became an important source of Ashikaga income. • Exports to China: Copper, Sulfur, folding fans, lacquer ware, large numbers of swords and other weapons. • Imports from China: Copper coins, Iron, textiles, embroideries, pictures, books and drugs. • Sakai (south of Osaka) became a principal port for local & international trade. The merchants became so rich that the Kamakura and Ashikaga called upon them for loans. The price was limited self-government and judicial autonomy.
Transportation • The constant warfare forced improvements in roads and ports. • A weak central government led to a proliferation of local customs and tariffs. Each manor and monastery demanded tolls and taxes. • The cost of transporting items could be easily doubled to compensate for tolls and taxes. Muromachi Ship, 1538. Artist Conception
Guilds • Guilds (Za) became common. They attached themselves to temples, shrines and great families for protection. Examples: • The Kyoto cotton clothiers - the Gion Shine. • Yeast brewers – Kitano Shrine • Warehouse Keepers – Tendai Monastery. • Paper maker – The Bojo family. • Gold leaf makers – The Konoe family • Courtesans – The Kuga family. • Protection didn’t come cheap.
Peasant Riots • Taxes were heavy, usury was the rule and pawn shops the vehicle. • Peasant riots led to 13 “tokusei,”i.e., general cancellation of debts. • Rioting groups were frequently strengthened by ronin members and could defeat minor military contingents. • Towns, villages and even provinces were held for extended periods by ronin reinforced peasant groups.
The Family • During this period of anarchy, the family became a critical social and political element. • The ability to protect property became critical. Primogeniture became common. All property was rewarded to a single male heir, usually the oldest, but not always. • The objective was to hold property by force of arms. • Constant warfare led to the country being partitioned into small self-governing units controlled by a single overlord, the ShugoDaimyo.
Onin War • Was a succession dispute in which the Yamana and Hosokawa clans backed different candidates to succeed the retiring Yoshimasa (1436-1490) as shogun. • Each clan amassed 80,000+ troops in Kyoto. The conflict lasted from 1467 to 1477. Kyoto was destroyed and looted many times over. • Violence spread to all of Japan, becoming the Warring States Period. An Ashikaga Daimyo
Azuchi-Momoyama Period • Three major figures emerged to restore order to Japan and create a feudal state. • Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582). • Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) • Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) • In describing the relationship between these three men, it was said that "The reunification is a rice cake; Oda made it. Toyotomi shaped it. At last, only Ieyasu tasted it."
Oda Nobunaga • Oda Nobunaga was the first to attempt to unify Japan. • He inherited Owari in central Honshu. He overcame divisions in his own clan and thru alliances and conquest controlled 1/3rd of Japan when he was assassinated in 1582. • Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were both his generals Oda Nobunaga. He pioneered the use of modern weapons and tactics. The Battle of Nagashino in 1575 was a classic in the use of firearms.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi • Hideyoshi was one of Oda Nobunaga’s ablest generals, but his greatest talent was politics. • He managed to keep Tokugawa Ieyasu at bay through marriage and land assignments in Kanto. • Hideyoshi controlled Japan thru personal loyalties. He could not be named shogun as he was not a Minamoto, but he did have himself adopted into the Fujiwara family and was appointed regent. Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi’s Domestic Policy • Relocation of Daimyo and their Samurai. • Sword Hunt of 1588. • Minimized rioting and rebellion. • Separated farmer from samurai • Land Survey- Set minimum to be a Daimyo • Edict of 1591-Converted class to caste. • Occupational status could not be changed. • Peasants became serfs for practical purposes.
Hideyoshi’s Foreign Policy • In the 1590s, demanded the submission of the Philippines by the Spanish governor. • Tried to invade Korea and China. • In 1592, sent 150,000 men to invade Korea. His forces were pushed back by Chinese forces into the Pusan pocket. • In 1597, sent another 140,000 men. • In 1598, Hideyoshi was preparing to send additional troops when he died.
Tokugawa Ieyasu • As one of Hideyoshi’s more powerful allies, Ieyasu was assigned a large domain at Edo (now Tokyo) in the Kanto Plain. • When Hideyoshi died, Ieyasu was one of five regents sworn to support Hideyori, Hideyoshi’s five year old son. • The Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 led to Ieyasu being designated shogun in 1603. • Osaka Castle fell in 1615 and ended Hideyori’s life. Tokugawa Ieyasu
Castles • In addition to being defensive fortifications, castles were status symbols and centers around which new towns grew. • Decorations were ostentatious and profuse. Entertainment was equally elaborate including 10 day tea parties. • Nevertheless, aesthetic austerity remained the ideal. Osaka Castle (Momoyama) was built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi on the pattern of Oda Nobunaga’s Castle. It originally had 48 towers. The current structure was rebuilt in 1997.
Tokugawa Government • The Tokugawa capital was Edo with deputies stationed at Osaka, Shizuoka and Kyoto. • The Daimyo were bound to the shogun by oaths of loyalty and family. • Tozama- Outside or allied daimyo. • Fudai- House daimyo; Tokugawa vassals. • Shimpan- Collateral daimyo; members of Tokugawa branch families. • The fudai and shimpan were strategically located. The tozama were considered the most potentially dangerous and were assigned lands in outer areas.
Tokugawa Control • Daimyo were: • Required to live in Edo during alternate years (sankin kotai). Families were left in Edo when the Daimyo returned to his estate. • Limited to one castle; repairs required bakufu approval. • Limited in the number of warriors that they could maintain. • Prohibited from building large ships. • Required to obtain the Bakufu’s consent for marriages. • Subject to the confiscation of estates if unable to produce a male heir. (Adoptions were not recognized.)
Tokugawa Strength • A comparison of agricultural holdings. • Tokugawa – 6.8 million koku • Shimpan – 2.6 million koku • Fudai – 6.7 million koku • Tozama – 9.8 million koku • Religious Institutions- 600,000 koku • The Emperor- 187,000 koku • The Tokugawa possessed about 1/4th of Japan’s land, many of Japan’s mines and most of its important cities.
Bakufu - Han Relations • There were about 250 han (domains) in Japan. The internal government of the hans was largely left to individual daimyo, as long as they paid their taxes. • By the 17th Century, 80% of samurai received a stipend; by the 18th Century 90% received a stipend. Only 10% retained local roots. • The balance between the central government and the hans was in constant flux, varying with the strength of the shogun and various hans
Economic and Social Change • Peace brought prosperity and change. • Cultivated acreage doubled and multiple-cropping became common. Market networks grew. • The population rose from 18 million to 33.1 million in the 1800s. • Villages became largely self-governing as the samurai moved to castle towns that became han capitals. • Wealthy villagers invested in rural industries such as vegetable oil processing, sake brewing, soy sauce and paper. • Merchants became increasingly powerful, providing banking services and eventually loans to the powerful.
Changing Role of Samurai • Many samurai became han or bakufu bureaucrats. • The right to wear two swords remained the badge of their inherited status, but their martial skills were seldom used. • The peacetime samurai sought to combine the roles of Confucian scholar and warrior. Yamaga Soko pioneered this fusion, modern bushido.
Genroku Culture • The entrance to Shinyoshiwara, Edo’s “floating world” of 1903. Genroku last from 1688 to 1704.
The Floating World • In a brief 50 year period, Yoshiwara produced a series of outstanding art forms. • Ukiyo-e pictures, primarily wood block prints, of the floating world. Masanobu was the leading artist and publisher. In later years, landscape prints flourished. • Kabuki and Bunraku theater. Many plays were written by Chikamatsu, Japan’s Shakespeare. • Haikai and Haiku poetry. Matsuo Basho is famous for the latter Print of a Kabuki actor.
WesternIntrusion • The Portuguese opened the way. • India –1498 • Goa – 1510 • Malacca-1511 • China– 1514 • Japan –1543 • Macao-1557 • Spain trailed in the Philippines in 1571.
The Objectives and Players • The Portuguese and Spanish had two objectives: • Profitable Trade. To break the Arab, Venetian and Genoese monopoly on spices and other items. • Spread Christianity and combat the spread of Islam. • The missionary players were: • Jesuits (Society of Jesus). • Dominicans. • Franciscans. • The Pope: Line of Demarcation. Ignatius Loyola, principal founder of the Jesuits
Initial Reception • During the Tang and Sung Dynasties, Arab and Persian traders were free to trade and reside in Chinese ports and cities. • The first Portuguese initially met with a friendly welcome. Fernado d’Andrada was even received at court. • The Chinese reception changed when Simon d’Andrada began pirating on the Pearl River. • When Alphonso de Mello appeared off Canton in 1522, the Chinese attacked and sunk his ships. The Portuguese did not return until 1542.
Jesuits in Japan • Francis Xavier landed on Kagoshima Island in 1549. The reception was warm. He was tall (5’1”), blue eyed and martial in his bearing. He was immediately impressed with the character and appearance of the Japanese. • Xavier learned the language and customs quickly, including bathing. The Japanese were receptive to the Christian message, although they may have initially thought it to be a form of Buddhism. Saint Francis Xavier
Jesuit Success. • By 1614, the Jesuits had achieved 300,000 converts. • Xavier had met with Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, who were favorably impressed. Hideyoshi even wore a Rosary. He saw Christianity as a way to combat Buddhism and increase trade. • Ieyasu initially favored Christianity, as well. • Western clothing became a fad. • The Japanese loved the trade. The Jesuits even administered the port of Nagasaki for seven years.
What Went Wrong • The Franciscans arrived from the Philippines in 1592. In 1597, Hideyoshi crucified six Franciscans and 18 converts when the pilot of their ship boasted of Spanish power and intentions. • The Dutch and English arrived in the early 1600’s. Will Adams piloted the first Dutch ship. • The questions faced by the Japanese were: • Would Japan be in jeopardy of colonization from the Philippines by the Spanish? • Would the Franciscan social message lead to insurrection?
Exclusion Policy • A serious campaign began in 1614 to expel missionaries and suppress Christianity. • 40,000 persons were killed. • 3,000 have been recognized as martyrs by the Vatican. • The Shimabara Rebellion (1637-38) led to 37,000 deaths. The rebels fought under Christian flags with slogans written in Portuguese. • All Europeans were expelled except for the Dutch on Deshima Island, Nagasaki. Church of the Holy Martyrs of Japan, Japan, Missouri.