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China and Japan

China and Japan

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China and Japan

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  1. China and Japan Deirdre, Reagan, Ryan, Nik, Alex, and Sean

  2. China

  3. Weakness of the Qing Dynasty (1644 to 1911) • Sino-centric philosophy, inability of ruling class to modernize to keep up with rival powers • No access to outside world, population felt no nationalism • Isolationist policy/lack of trade increased poverty and hurt foreign relations • Population explosion brought need for recourses, reforms, and modernization, Qing refused to address the needs of the people http://www.history-of-china.com/qing-dynasty/

  4. Weakness of the Qing Dynasty (1644 to 1911) • British led opium trade lead to inflation and unease of peasants due to addiction • Boxer Rebellion reparations paid to foreign powers, who carved up and divided China • Lost Korea and Taiwan, proving ruling dynasty incapable of protecting territories • Sun Yat-sen led Republican Revolution in 1911, creating central government, and emphasizing nationalism, democracy, and livelihood Sun Yat-sen http://globalvoicesonline.org/2011/10/13/china-reflecting-on-100-years-since-the-xinhai-revolution/

  5. Background to the Opium War • China utilized isolationist policy prior to 1830 • British companies bought huge amounts of opium to smuggle into China • 90% of male population under 40 along the coast was addicted • 3,540,450 pounds of opium imported to China in 1832

  6. First Opium War • Chinese officials arrested Western merchants and confiscated huge amount of opium • 1840 - Britain invades China • By 1841 Britain easily won against technological inferior China • 1842 - China forced to sign Treaty of Nanking http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Destroying_Chinese_war_junks,_by_E._Duncan_(1843).jpg

  7. Second Opium War • 1857 - Great Britain, USA, France, Russia invaded China for trivial matter • 1858 - crushed China into signing Treaty of Tientsin, which China did not ratify • 1860 - Anglo-French invades China again, forces China to sign Treaty of Peking

  8. Open Door Policy • 1899 & 1900 • All nations allowed equal access to open trading ports • Only Chinese government allowed to collect taxes on trade • No great power exempt from paying harbor dues or railroad charges • Scramble for spheres of influence after 1st Sino-Japanese Ware (1894-1895)

  9. Open Door Policy • American interested in Chinese market for cheap cotton goods • U.S. late to imperialistic growth in China • All nations except Japan acknowledged the importance of keeping China’s territorial and administrative integrity • Re-circulated notes again in 1900 • Overall led to Manchurian crisis of 1931 and war between China and Japan in 1937

  10. Boxer Rebellion • Anti-foreigner uprising in Qing, China • Lasted between Nov. 1899 and Sept.1901 • Ended with the signing of the Boxer Protocol, which mandated the execution of several high-ranking Boxer officials • Occurred under Empress Tsu Hsi of the Ch'ing Dynasty's rule • Reasons include exploitation of natural resources and the splitting of China through the powers of many foreign countries

  11. The Boxers • AKA "Fists of Righteous Harmony," a secret society with thousands of followers • Wanted to rid China of all foreign countries, especially Western nations • Killed thousands of foreigners and surrounded foreigner compound for 2 months until international forces got involved

  12. Japan

  13. The Meiji Restoration (1868) • 1800s - Japan was ruled by the Tokugawa Shogun • European treaties limited Japan economically • 1868 - Emperor of Japan was restored to power • Resulting social and economic reforms became known as the Meiji Restoration The Meiji Emperor http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/meiji.htm

  14. The Meiji Restoration (1868) Samurai • Samurai privileges were revoked • Utilized the zaibatsu system • Established a national army and national education • 1899 - the government created a new constitution http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samurai

  15. Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) • Japan is a major, expanding, and industrializing nation • China and Japan fight for influence in Korea • Tonghak rebellion in Korea leads to Chinese troop intervention-war is declared • Japan successfully invades vital provinces and fortifications • Treaty of Shimonseeki ends conflict • China goes through reform movement as a result http://www.cityofart.net/bship/sino-jap.html

  16. Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) • Russia vs. Japan rivalry in Korea and Manchuria • Japan is greater than Russia in terms of ground troops in far East • Feb. 8, 1904-Japanese fleet sieges Port Arthur • Russia has poor leadership • Japan’s victorious in the Battle of Mukden(land) and Battle of Tsushima(sea) • Russia loses-Theodore Roosevelt=mediator atTreaty of Portsmouth • Results: Japan gains land, Russia gives up land, and creates constitutional charter

  17. Citations • www.afe.easia.columbia.edu • http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/meiji.html • http://www.victorianweb.org/history/empire/opiumwars/opiumwars1.html • www.u-s-history.com • www.britannica.com • www.smplanet.com/imperialism/fists.html • www.militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars1900s/p/boxereb.htm • www.asianhistory.about.com/od/glossaryae/g/GlosBoxerRebell.htm • www.larevuetoudi.org/en/story/quing-dynasty